Class notes
VCE Notes for Biology Unit 2
Course outline
key concepts

Area of Study 1

9 Term 2
9 Cell Cycle p 389
mitosis -phases
Mitosis + cytokinesis
prokaryotes cell cycle
cell cycle -stem cells
Problems with cell cycle, diseases, burns
1. Asexual reproduction cuttings
2. microscopic examination of onion root tip

3. biozone 161, 162, 163
4. Edrolo
3 to 6
10, 11
wk 10
10. Asexual Reproduction
Asexual reproduction -types, advantages, disadvantages
Cf prokaryotes and eukaryotes - egs including parthenogenesis, layering, cuttings and spore production
Cloning - plants, animals
1. Asexual reproduction in plants continued
2. biozone 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170
2 to 5
7, 8
wk 11 Term 2

Outcome 3 starts

Reproductive technologies practical activity and presentation-
due week 8 term 3
Other resources

Wk 1 Term 3
11. Sexual reproduction
gametes and production and fertilization
Meiosis - haploid, diploid, phases, reduction division, as a source of variability
crossing over, recombinations
Advantages, disadvantages
External vs internal fertilisation advantages and disadvantages
1. Biozone 175
2. Biozone 171 to 176
3, 5,7,8 ,9
wk 3
12. Cell growth and differentiation
Antenatal human development - role of hormones and effect on their target cells
stages of development - blastocyst, germ layers, fetus - p470 stem cells
effects of chemicals on development - thallidamide
Stem cells , normal vs abnormal embryonic development
Cancer and the cell cycle - genes, inhibitors and supressors
1.Biozone 179 to 183
2 to 5
wk 4
Outcome 1

Area of Study 2

wk 5
13. Genomes, genes and alleles
Human genome project, sequencing- role of DNA, RNA, mRNA , tRNA
Comparision of genomes
Nucleotides- bases and combinations
DNA double helix
Mendelian crosses and inheritances
Role of genes and namiong genes, Alleles,
Writing Hypotheses
designing an experiment
1. Biozone 188 to 189

genetic models green box
prac- barley prac. counting recessive and dominant
3 to 5
6, 7
wk 7
14. Chromosomes: carriers of genes
karyotypes, Errors in chromosome numbers - translocation, deletion, duplication
Diseases, congenital , crosses, punnet squares, sex determination; humans, reptiles, birds
1. Biozone 190 to 197
2. Biozone 198 to 203
3 to 6
8, 9, 10
wk 8
Outcome 3 due

wk 9
15. Genotypes and phenotypes
genotype, phenotype,
homozygus, heterozygus, autosomal, codominance, epigenetics, polygenes
1. Biozone 204 to 212
4 to 6
wk 1 Term 4
16. Genetic crosses
monohybrid cross, dihybrid cross,
codominant alleles
punnet squares
Detecting linkage
genetic testing
Family pedigrees and diseases,Autosomal recessive, X linked dominant and X linked recessive
mitachondrial DNA mtDNA maternal line inheritance
1. Biozone 213 to 223

prac- barley prac. counting recessive and dominant
Corn models of , p, f1, f2
3 to 6 8 and 10
wk 3
Practice questions

wk 4
Outcome 2

Wk 6



The award of satisfactory completion for a unit is based on whether the student has demonstrated the set of outcomes specified for the unit. Teachers should use a variety of learning activities and assessment tasks that provide a range of opportunities for students to demonstrate the key knowledge and key skills in the outcomes.
The areas of study, including the key knowledge and key skills listed for the outcomes, should be used for course design and the development of learning activities and assessment tasks. Assessment must be a part of the regular teaching and learning program and should be completed mainly in class and within a limited timeframe. All assessments at Units 1 and 2 are school-based. Procedures for assessment of levels of achievement in Units 1 and 2 are a matter for school decision.
  • For this unit students are required to demonstrate achievement of three outcomes. As a set these outcomes encompass all areas of study. Suitable tasks for assessment may be selected from the following:

  1. For Outcomes 1 and 2 • a report of a fieldwork activity • annotations of a practical work folio of activities or investigations • a bioinformatics exercise • media response • data analysis • problem solving involving biological concepts, skills and/or issues • a reflective learning journal/blog related to selected activities or in response to an issue • a test comprising multiple choice and/or short answer and/or extended response.
  2. For Outcome 3 • a report of an investigation into genetics and/or reproductive science using an appropriate format, for example, digital presentation, oral communication or written report.
  • Where teachers allow students to choose between tasks they must ensure that the tasks they set are of comparable scope and demand.
  • Practical work is a central component of learning and assessment. As a guide, between 3½ and 5 hours of class time should be devoted to student practical work and investigations for each of Areas of Study 1 and 2. For Area of Study 3, between 6 and 8 hours of class time should be devoted to undertaking the investigation and communicating findings.