1. Solubility worksheet.pdf
    Solubility_pyramid_rules.jpg
  2. Dilution and concentration Concentration ppm, ppb, %.pdf
    solubility_curves.jpg
  3. extra questions on concentration etc extra con and mol questions.pdf
12. Water Removing dissolved solutes

  1. Experiments: Precipitation expt - precipitation expt.PDF
  2. Solubility rules - the ausetute chem site
  3. Maintaining water quality - Treating drinking water, Hard water, Desalination, Reverse Osmosis Reverse osmosis 2
  4. Ionic equations - The main thing about ionic equations is that they show you exactly how elements have reacted together and what states (if any) they have changed into. A net ionic equation does not show the spectator ions.
  5. The basics of how to write them - follow these steps -for worked examples see below
  6. To write the complete ionic equation:
    1. Start with a balanced molecular equation.
    2. Break all soluble strong electrolytes (compounds with (aq) beside them) into their ions
      • indicate the correct formula and charge of each ion
      • indicate the correct number of each ion
      • write (aq) after each ion
    3. Bring down all compounds with (s), (l), or (g) unchanged.
To write a net ionic equation:
  1. Write the balanced molecular equation.
  2. Write the balanced complete ionic equation.
  3. Cross out the spectator ions that are present.
  4. Write the "leftovers" as the net ionic equation.


  1. how to write them http://www.occc.edu/kmbailey/chem1115tutorials/Net_Ionic_Eqns.htm
  2. here is another set of notes to explain how to write ionic equations also a video of how to write them as well http://www.onlinemathlearning.com/ionic-equation.html
  3. Use this resource to review how ionic equations can be used to explain acid base reactions as well as how to write ionic equations http://chemistry.about.com/od/chemicalequations/a/How-To-Balance-Ionic-Equations.htm

Solubilty rules
http://www.ausetute.com.au/solrules.html