The Body at War – Outline Name__
Year 9 tests -Pretest for Body at war - link

Key Concept

Common Assessment Tasks
  1. 1. Patterns, order and organization
  2. 2. Form and function
  3. 3. Stability and change
  4. 4. Systems

Multicellular organisms rely on coordinated and interdependent organisms and abiotic components of the environment; matter and energy flow through these systems.
Cellular pathogens
Non-cellular pathogens
Fungi and Moulds
Worms and arthropods
Germ theory
Immune response
White blood cells
Bubonic plague
Swine flu
Lymphatic system
B lymphocytes
T lymphocytes
Plasma cells
Memory cells
Small pox
Pap test
Active immunity
Passive immunity
  • o ‘Thinking About Malaria’ Research
  • o End of Topic Test

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Description: Macintosh HD:Users:shelleyhatch:Desktop:caduceus-medical-symbol.jpg
Regular homework tasks – as determined by individual teachers
Suggested Priority and Timeline

Suggested Activities
Extension and Variation
Week 1
4.1 Catch Us If You Can p154-156
  • o Can’t catch us!
  • o Can catch us!
  • o Spreading it around
  • o Fighting the spread
4.2 Invasion! Alien Alert! p158-160
  • o Parasites (possibly show tapeworm specimen)
  • o Pathogens
Science as a Human Endeavour
  • o Question 21 p157 study of main causes of death worldwide.


Prac: Simulated Infection practical
Prac: Inv 4.1 Microbes (extension with antibiotics)

Science as a Human Endeavour
  • o Question 14 p161 Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (prion research)
  • o Question 17 p 161 Famous Immunologists

eBook Plus: Killing Australians

Extension: Analysing Data pg 157 Q 21.

eBook Plus: eLesson – Mystery of the Flesh Eaters
Week 2

4.6 Outbreak p173-175
  • o Local or Global?
  • o The Black Plague – Bubonic Plague
  • o Crossing Boundaries
  • o Influenza

4.7 Putting Up Defences p177-180
  • o Antigens – You Don’t Belong Here!
  • o Lines of Defence
  • o Systems Working Together
Science as a Human Endeavour

  • o Question 18 p176 Yersinia pestis
  • o Question 24 p 176 Typhoid Mary

Research Task: students research prions and the spread of mad cow disease (bovine spongiform encepolopathy).
Reaserch Task: Ebola! Research on ebola and provide feedback to the class on mode of transmission and effects on the human body.
Research Task: Ecoli Prac (document upload)

Ebola -fact sheets

Prac: ‘What’s Bugging You’? (spread of diseases)

linesof defence video - focussing on the third line of defence.

Prac: Viewing Blood Smear Slides (microscopes)

Complete the Progress test

- go here for the details Year 9 tests

eBook Plus: eLesson – Understanding HIV

eBook Plus: Phagocytosis
Week 2 - 3
4.8 Choosing Immunisation p181-185
  • o A Small Start, A Giant Leap!
  • o Polio
  • o Cervical Cancer
  • o What is Immunity?

4.9 Travel Bugs p186-187
  • o Pass the Toilet Paper!
  • o A Quick Jab Before You Go
  • o All About Malaria
Science as a Human Endeavour
  • o Thoughts on immunisation handout (document upload)
  • o Debate on immunisation (class role play)

COmplete the "Body at War summary notes" fill in the blanks activity

Common Assessment Task: Thinking About Malaria Research

YouTube at: and runs for about 7 minutes.
eBook Plus: WHO
eBook Plus: Immunisation in Australia

Extension: Question 5 p 185 The Common Cold

Extension: Question 5 p 187 Q1-4 p 187
Week 4
4.10 Our noble Nobles p 188-190
  • o Marvellous Mould
  • o Miracle Cure-all
  • o The father of Immunology
  • o Influenza Strains
  • o Matching Body Parts
  • o Killer Cells
  • o From Pasteur to penicillin
4.3 Medieval Medicine p162-165
  • o Hippocrates and body humors
  • o Galen and anatomy
  • o The middle Ages – times of change
  • o Making sense of disease
Science as a Human Endeavour
  • o Research Sir Frank Macfarlane and Sir Howard Florey through eBook plus, Q7 p 191

Here are some good Ted-Ed/You Tube videos that you might want to use with your year 9s:

Possible Homework: Q20 p 165 Arabic golden age.
Extension: Q9 p 191 research other noble prize winners that had to do with disease.

eLesson: Leonardo’s sketches on anatomy
Week 5
Complete work on ‘Thinking About Malaria’ Research

Submission of ‘Thinking About Malaria’ Research


The Body at WarClass notes

EP task 1
A disease is a disorder of a function or structure that prevents your body being in homeostasis. It can affect part or all of a organ or organism.
A pathogen is something that spreads a disease - it can be a
virus, bacteria, fungus, parasite or prion.

The main difference between infectious and non infectious diseases is
the infectious disease is caused by a micro organism eg virus, bacteria, fungus, parasite or prion.
Non-infectious Diseases can’t be spread but Infectious Diseases caused by Cellular Pathogen (lice, bacteria (eg. pneumonia), tapeworm, protozoa (eg. malaria) & fungi (eg. mould, thrush, tinea)) or Non-cellular Pathogen (virus (eg. flu) or Prion (eg. mad cow)) may need Quarantine isolation to stop spread by direct touch, air, contaminated objects, vectors (mosquito, rats) or H2O. Endoparasites (inside) orEctoparasites (outside body) attack the Primary Host (adult) or Intermediate Host (larvae). Prion proteins convert your normal protein into prion (diseased) protein.

The easiest way to control an infectious disease is to quarantine the infected person. This may not always be possible. The control stops the spreading of the disease but does not treat the cause of the disease.

Diseases are passed from one person to another in 4 main ways.
1. Direct contact - this includes touching another person who has the disease and spreading their infected fluids on to yourself. eg chicken pox, STDs, glandular fever. The infected person may cough or sneeze onto you or the air you are about to breathe.
2. Vectors - these are organisms that carry the disease causing pathogen between organisms. THey are not affected by the disease. Eg flies, rats - (the fleas on rats carried the black plague), mosiquitoes carry malaria, ross river fever, dengue virus, Bats - Hendra virus.
3. Contaminated objects - these include furniture like door knobs, railings, toilets, used tissues, towels - fungus like athletes foot is passed this way.
4. Contaminated water - pathogenic organism often live in contaminated water. the water can be contaminated by livestock or human waste. Eg include cholera , E coli, worms - tape worms

Ch 4 Body At War
Discoveries that have made a difference
Hooke- discovered the microscope, this allowed him and us to see things smaller than a hair in great detail- think of plant cells, microscopic animals- parasites, bacteria
Leeuwenhoek--animals in lake, discovered microscopic animals
Jenner-vaccination - used the serum from cow pox to innoculate against small pox
, Schleiden-cell theory, - ll things are made of cells or the products of cells
Pasteur/Koch-bacteria in rotten food & in nature.-discovered that food would not spoil(rot) if they were kept in a container where the air could not reach.

Non-infectious Diseases can’t be spread but Infectious Diseases caused by Cellular Pathogen (lice, bacteria (eg. pneumonia), tapeworm, protozoa (eg. malaria) & fungi (eg. mould, thrush, tinea)) or Non-cellular Pathogen (virus (eg. flu) or Prion (eg. mad cow)) may need Quarantine isolation to stop spread by direct touch, air, contaminated objects, vectors (mosquito, rats) or H2O. Endoparasites (inside) or Ectoparasites (outside body) attack the Primary Host (adult) or Intermediate Host (larvae). Prion proteins convert your normal protein into prion (diseased) protein.

Microorganisms that cause disease

In order of size they are
a prion is the smallest,
a virus
single celled parasite - like amoebic dysentry
fungi - multicelled
multi celled parasite - tape worm

Virus DNA or RNA inside a protein coat invades host cells & multiply so the cell bursts.

Bacteria are Bacillus rods eg. typhoid, Spirochaete spiral eg. cholera or Coccus spherical eg. staphylococcus. Contagious diseases spread by: Plague

Spreading disease

  • Local or Global?
  • The Black Plague – Bubonic Plague
  • Crossing Boundaries
  • Influenza

spreads causes high death rate, Epidemic

spreads quickly in 1 area or

Pandemic = disease spreads across the world.

Lines of defence - battling the pathogens

The 1st, and 2nd lines of defence are Non Specific Defences.
Included in the 1st Line of defence are the following
the waterproof skin; this acts as a barrier to invaders.
saliva in mouth,
mucus in throat, nose & gut this is to trap the bacteria and other foreign bodies so the cilia hairs can sweep them
acid in stomach,
Lachrymal glands which release tears tomwash foreign bodies away

The second line of defence is also non specific.
This includes; Inflammation at the site of infection,
phagocytes that are non specific. This means they can engulf any foreign body

All Pathogens contain Antigen on their surface. These are chemicals that trigger the immune system. And the third line of

The 3rd line of defence is very specific.
It includes: Specific Defence is the
Lymphocytes (white blood cells) of Lymphatic system that form Plasma cells (release antibodies to bind to the antigens for ingestion by Phagocytes) & Memory cells (remember the antigen for the future).
Lymph Nodes are required to filter out the phagocytes that are dead and foreign bodies that have been affected by antibodies.

The immune system is the body's defence against infectious organisms and other invaders.

The immune system is made up of a network of cells, tissues, and organs
that work together to protect the body.
The cells involved are white blood cells, or leukocytes, which come in two basic types that combine to seek out and destroy disease-causing organisms or substances. The leukocytes circulate through the body between the organs and nodes via lymphatic vessels and blood vessels.

There are 2 main types

1. phagocytes, cells that chew up invading organisms -The most common type is the neutrophil, which primarily fights bacteria

2. lymphocytes, cells that allow the body to remember and recognize previous invaders and help the body destroy them -
The two kinds of lymphocytes are B lymphocytes (seek out targets and send in the others to kill the targets and
T lymphocytes. - lock on to the targets and destroy them .
The phagocytes come along and engulf the dead cells
for a more detailed explanation see below.

From Kids Health

Here's how it works:

When antigens (foreign substances that invade the body) are detected, several types of cells work together to recognize them and respond. These cells trigger the B lymphocytes to produce antibodies, specialized proteins that lock onto specific antigens.

Once produced, these antibodies continue to exist in a person's body, so that if the same antigen is presented to the immune system again, the antibodies are already there to do their job. So if someone gets sick with a certain disease, like chickenpox, that person typically doesn't get sick from it again.

This is also how immunizations prevent certain diseases. An immunization introduces the body to an antigen in a way that doesn't make someone sick, but does allow the body to produce antibodies that will then protect the person from future attack by the germ or substance that produces that particular disease.

Although antibodies can recognize an antigen and lock onto it, they are not capable of destroying it without help. That's the job of the T cells, which are part of the system that destroys antigens that have been tagged by antibodies or cells that have been infected or somehow changed. (Some T cells are actually called "killer cells.") T cells also are involved in helping signal other cells (like phagocytes) to do their jobs.

Antibodies also can neutralize toxins (poisonous or damaging substances) produced by different organisms. Lastly, antibodies can activate a group of proteins called complement that are also part of the immune system. Complement assists in killing bacteria, viruses, or infected cells.

All of these specialized cells and parts of the immune system offer the body protection against disease. This protection is called immunity.

Active, Passive , Natural and artificial immunity

Naturally acquired active immunity occurs when the person is exposed to a live pathogen, develops the disease, and becomes immune as a result of the primary immune response.
Artificially acquired active immunity can be induced by a vaccine, a substance that contains the antigen. A vaccine stimulates a primary response against the antigen without causing symptoms of the disease (see vaccination).

Artificially acquired passive immunity is a short-term immunization by the injection of antibodies, such as gamma globulin, that are not produced by the recipient's cells.
Naturally acquired passive immunity occurs during pregnancy, in which certain antibodies are passed from the maternal into the fetal bloodstream. Immunologic tolerance for foreign antigens can be induced experimentally by creating conditions of high-zone tolerance, i.e., by injecting large amounts of a foreign antigen into the host organism, or low-zone tolerance, i.e., injecting small amounts of foreign antigen over long periods of time.

active and passive immunity[18].png

How to do the malaria project in one lesson

step 1: read the information provided - assign each member of the team to read some the information collect and reassemble your group data under the headings of
What is it
Effect on person, society, comunity, family
How is it controlled
Why is this an important disease

Step 2: What is the main idea for campaign? what's the pitch? Write this as one simple coherrent sentence

Step 3: Who is your target audience?

Step 4 : Collect and rearrange the data to form a supporting argument for your campaign

Step 5: Choose your presentation form

Step 6: Build it

  • o Question 14 p135 Helicobacter pylori
Search for a cure for stomach ulcers- upto this point no one thought bacteria live in acid in the stomach- they found Helicobacter pylori . One of the scientists drank some of the broth with bacteria and got a stomach ulcer - he cured himself by taking antibiotics
  • o Question 15 p 135 Scientific Careers
  • Virologist - study viruses -their life cycle, sub viral particle- /problems in studying this - hard to see and see what it does inside the cell, get infected, spread,
  • bacteriologist -study bacteria - problems as above
  • forensic microbiologist - study the microbes that cause a disease and determine the path of an outbreak

4.2 questions -Science as a Human Endeavour

  • o Question 14 p139 Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease - Mad cow disease - in cows get wobbly, can't walk in a straight line - die after six months. If we eat their meat we get the disease. Proteins from the diseased brain cause the disease in humans. The diseased protein is called a prion and is found on the surface of the cells of sick animals and people
  • o Question 17 p 139 Famous Immunologists

As part of a group of four each member is to choose a different one of the following.
  • Parasite disease
  • virus pathogen disease
  • bacterial pathogen disease
  • fungal disease
Each member of the group will need to research the chosen disease in enough depth to teach the other members of the group.
You should address at least the following points
  1. What is the name of the disease
  2. What are the symptoms of the disease
  3. How is the disease contracted ( what is the vector )
  4. How is the disease controlled
  5. How are the symptoms controlled
This should be completed with in the lesson.
Now make a short true or false test about what you taught your team members. Administer the test and forward the test and the results to me. If you wish you can use an online test maker in edmodo to make the test . (email is ok

Whats bugging you prac

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What’s Bugging You? – Spread of a Disease Laboratory Activity

The way in which a disease spreads through a population demands the careful collection and analysis of data. When an outbreak of a serious disease occurs, scientists must track down the disease and determine its origin. In this investigation, you will simulate the spread of an infectious disease and determine the original carrier of the disease.

How can you simulate the spread of disease within a community?

One cup filled with stock solution
One pipette

  1. Select one plastic cup with a stock solution provided by your teacher. Record your name in Data Table 1 on the next page.
  2. Obtain a pipette from your teacher.
  3. At your teacher’s signal, begin walking around among your classmates until the teacher tells you to stop. Using the pipette, exchange a pipette full of your solution from your plastic cup into the plastic cup of the contact. You should also receive a pipette full of the solution from your contact’s plastic cup. Record the name of that person as Contact 1 in the Data Table 1.

Your Name
Contact 1
Contact 2
Contact 3

  1. Repeat step 3 and record the name of this person as Contact 2.
  2. Repeat step 3 and record the name of this person as Contact 3.
  3. Your teacher will now add several drops of an indicator to your cup to determine whether or not you have been infected or not.
  4. After performing the indicator test for the presence of infections for all students in the class, your teacher will record the names and contacts of the infected individuals. You can use Data Table 2 to record this information.

Student Name
Not Infected

  1. How many individuals were infected by the end of the simulation? How many were not infected?

  1. Using the class data, eliminate the names of those who were not infected. From this, try to find the original source of the infection by examining the remaining sequence of contacts.

  1. Were you able to identify the original carrier of the disease? If not, specify what information or test is required to identify the original source.

  1. In the space provided on this sheet, make a diagram of the transmission route.

  1. Suppose you came into contact with as many people as possible during a specified period of time. What effect would this have on the outcome of this simulation?

Class notes
2017 CAT

Tetanus 7 minutes
Whooping cough 7 min
Malaria Part 1 4 minutes
Malaria Part 2 4 minutes
Clickview 4 corners Rise of the Superbugs 50 min
Concentrate on
4.2 mode of transmission:
4.3 invasion alien alert: types of pathogens, key features of viruses and bacteria in particular, but also protozoans (malaria), parasites (worms and arthropods) prions, fungi. Include use of antibiotics to treat bacterial infection and the issue of antibiotic resistant diseases (see 4 corners program above)
4.7 pandemic and epidemics with some examples such as flu.
4.8 Putting up defences, including three lines of defence: barriers, inflammation, phagocytes, lymphocytes(particularly B cells & antibodies and memory cells).
4.9 choosing immunisation, how vaccinations work