Year 10 EVOLUTION
7CNG
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Test Link
http://www.classroomclipboard.com/490625/Test/6C55B2245C984977B8A2B50886165C40
This link takes you directly to this online test and will be the same for all published changes.

Key Concepts


Using the theory of evolution by natural selection to explain the diversity of living things and demonstrate how this is supported by a range of scientific evidence.
Outline
Outlining processes involved in natural selection including variation, isolation and selection
  • Describing biodiversity as a function of evolution
  • Investigating changes caused by natural selection in a particular population as a result of a specified selection pressure, such as artificial selection in breeding for desired characteristics
  • Relating genetic characteristics to survival and reproductive rates
  • Evaluating and interpreting evidence for evolution, including the fossil record, chemical and anatomical similarities, and geographical distribution of species




NAME:

Science Quest
TEXTBOOK
SCIENCE Quest PRACTICALS / ACTIVITIES
SCIENCE Quest
HOMEWORK
OTHER ACTIVITIES/RESOURCES
1
3.4 Natural Selection
- is about being better suited to a particular environment and having an increased chance of surviving long enough to be able to have offspring that will take your genes into the next generation.
  • INQUIRY: Investigation 3.2
- Modelling Natural Selection
  • INVESTIGATE, THINK AND REPORT – Qn 13 - The English peppered moth.
  • external image placeholder?w=200&h=50 Worksheets
3.1 Struggling to Survive
3.2 Isolation and New Species
Homework Qn’s (p.93) 1 -10
Education Perfect
‘Yr 10 Scientific Understanding’
2.Explaining Evolution
2.1 – Natural Selection
2.2 – Artificial Selection
2.3 – Examples of Evolution
2
3.5 Patterns, Order and Organisation Evolution - Variation, struggle for survival, selective advantage and inheritance of advantageous variations formed the basis for Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection. It also provided an explanation for how new species arise.
.external image placeholder?w=200&h=50How a new species evolves (eles – 0162) – Activity to learn how a new species can form over time through the process of evolution.
UNDERSTANDING AND INQUIRING Qn’s(p.96) 1 -10
extension this is a short series of videos on iTunesU -it set at a uni levelITunes U course evolution

P
lay the natural selection game
http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/evolution/what-is-evolution/natural-selection-game/the-evolution-experience.html
Q3. How does natural selection aid the process of evolution?
PART II.
Directions:
You are going to play a game that mimics the process of natural selection.
You are to eat as many bugs as you can in each round (Both blue and green)
Pay close attention to the bar graph after each round. The blue bar shows the relative number of blue insects and the green bar
shows the relative number of green insects.
3
3.6 Long, Long Ago
A long time ago the continents were joined together.
  • INQUIRY: INVESTIGATION 3.3 Activity(p.100)
- 4.6 billion years of history
  • external image placeholder?w=200&h=50 Worksheet
3.3 Geological time
  • Use the Madagascar external image placeholder?w=200&h=50weblink to watch a video and read about the geological and evolutionary history of Madagascar.
UNDERSTANDING AND INQUIRING Qn’s(p.101) 1 -4
Education Perfect
‘Yr 10 Scientific Understanding’
3.Evidence
3.1 – fossils
3.2 – Living Species
3.3 – Plate Tectonics & Biogeography
4
3.9 – More Evidence for Evolution
The theory of evolution by natural selection was developed by Darwin and Wallace. Since then, more evidence has been collected to further support their theory. Some of these have involved the use of new technologies.
  • Use the Whale kiosk weblink in your external image placeholder?w=200&h=50 to work through an interactivity on whale evolution. After completing the interactivity, write a brief report that outlines how DNA evidence can be used to work out evolutionary relationships between organisms.
UNDERSTANDING AND INQUIRING Qn’s(p.113) 1 -7
Use the Whale kiosk weblink in external image placeholder?w=200&h=50 to work through an interactivity on whale evolution. After completing the interactivity, write a brief report that outlines how DNA evidence can be used to work out evolutionary relationships between organisms.
5
310 Origin of whose species
The current scientific view of the origin of the species is based on Darwin's and Wallace's theory of evolution of species by natural selection. This theory changed the way many viewed the origin of life and its diversity on our planet.
UNDERSTANDING AND INQUIRING Qn’s (p.117) 1, 2,4,5,6.
Use the Human evolution weblink in your external image placeholder?w=200&h=50to watch videos, try interactivities and use a timeline to learn more about human evolution

Education Perfect
‘Yr 10 Scientific Understanding’
2.Explaining Evolution
2.1 Our Evolution
6
3.11 See you later, alligator
It has been estimated that about four species become extinct every hour. Over the next few decades, as many as one million species could be lost forever. How will the loss of biodiversity affect life on Earth?
Investigate - Choose one of the following (the approximate year of extinction is given in brackets) and describe the animal, its lifestyle and the theory of the cause of its extinction: flightless ibis (1000), giant lemur (500), giant moa (1500), aurochs (1627) or an animal of your choice.
UNDERSTANDING AND INQUIRING Qn’s p.121– 1 -9
Education Perfect
‘Yr 10 Scientific Understanding’
1. Biodiversity
1.1 Biodiversity
1.2 Extinction
7
REVISION – Looking back
**http://mrwallisscience.wikispaces.com/Yr+10+Evolution**
for class notes and links to some work sheets
also updated videos


8
Test




Class notes

What causes evolution to keep happening

Selecting agent
Disease:If an organism is naturally immune to a disease will survive to pass on their genes and resistance to the next generation. The organism survives to be sexually mature and reproduce and produce fertile offspring.

Competitors: Organisms compete for food , shelter, sexual partners,
Only the strongest will survive to access the food shelter, partner and therefore reproduce. The organism survives to be sexually mature and reproduce and produce fertile offspring.
Strongest means most suited or able to survive.

Environmental factors as selective agents.
e.g. Lack of water - those which can survive with the least water can survive or those that have behaviour that finds water or requires less water will allowThe organism to survive and
to be sexually mature and reproduce and produce fertile offspring.

Try this evolution game from PHET
Natural Selection
Click to Run


questions page 127 - ques 7 and 8 and 9

Evolution
Consider the evolution of the car since the first models were developed. We can recognise an old car or a modern car because they still have the same basic plan.
Evolution through natural selection.
Offspring resemble their parents. Those best suited to the environment they will survive and breed.

Natural selection in action
Farmers spraying their crops with insecticide. Some survive due to their genetic resistance. Those that survive are resistant to the spray. They will survive.

Forms of evolution

  1. Parallel
    1. marsupials vs placentals - they both evolved from a common ancestor but diverged to have some very different structures. The species further evolved to fill all the available niches. Eg placentals have live birth compared to marsupials that have a pouch structure
    2. Wombats have a Back wards opening pouch - Kangaroo a frontward opening pouch
  2. Convergent
    1. Because they live in similar habitats - Dolphin and sharks have similar body shapes etc - but a dolphin is a mammal and a shark is fish - The dolphin has evolved from a terrestrial vertebrate - Dolphin fins and shark fins are analogous structures. These structures are the best suited for survival in this habitat and have been selected for by Natural Selection.
  3. Divergent
    1. arise from the same ancestor species but due to geographical distance (or geographical isolation) they have evolved to possess different characteristics and (look different) to each other. Eg the rosella of SE Aust compared to northern Aust - these animals can't reproduce in the wild because they are generally separated by large distances but also because they have developed different behaviours relating to mating and the time of mating. (If they are caged together they sometimes mate and produce fertile offspring) The definition of a species is - a group of organisms that can reproduce to raise fertile offspring. Eg you, Eg2 not a species is a mule - sterile - the result of a horse and donkey mating.
  4. Coevolution
    1. The evolution of one species in response to the evolution of another. eg parasites evolving along with their host. Or birds evolving along with a particular flowering plant eg Yucca moth and the Yucca plant (this plant can only be pollinated by this moth)

Structures to examine when determining the type of evolution


Homologous structures
same bones perform different functions in different species eg the pentadactyl limb.

Analogous structures
See above - convergent evolution

species, speciation, geographic isolation, subspecies, reproductive isolation, divergent evolution, convergent evolution, parallel evolution, adaptive radiation, analogous structures

Evidence for evolution

1. the fossil record
Fossils are made by preserving evidence of past life. The most common method is a body being buried by sediments and its hard parts making an imprint on the rock.

Examples of fossils include
Fossilised, bones, teeth, shells, leaves, pollen, tracks, footprints.

The rocks are lay down in an order - the oldest is at the bottom of the rock strata and the youngest is closer to the earths surface. The fossils at the bottom of the strata are older than fossils at the top of the strata. This makes the fossil record.
2. The fossil record supports evolution because we can find fossils that have gradually changed in structure over time. Eg the fossil history of the horse. p 109 Fig 3.3.12.
3. Transitional forms. - these are examples of where the fossil record has branched giving rise to two different species. - Examples include - Archaeopteryx - this is the transitional form between reptiles and birds- This animal shows in its fossil the bones of a reptile - teeth like a reptile and feathers like a bird and a hip (pelvis) like a bird..
Another example is the Lung fish _ this survives in Qld today. Its a fish with scales and gills but has a lung like a frog. It also has modified fins that act like feet and legs.
4. Anatomical studies - the study of different species bodies and comparing the similarities show that they have similar forms. Vertebrates are a good example. They all have a pentadactyl limb. This is a five digit hand with 2 bones in the forearm and one bone in the upper arm and then joined to a girdle. When we examine a dolphin fin and a bats wing and our arm we see the same bones even though some may be much larger in one species than another. see page 109 fig. 3.3.11.
5. Embryonic Development. -
This is the study of the embyro as it develops in different species. This shows similar structures as they develop in different species. One classic example is the gill slits found in sharks, fish birds and humans. Our gill slits are apparent the first few weeks after conception. It is thought that they develop into differnt structures in us. Eg one gill slit becomes our middle ear while others become our pharynx and voice box.
6. Distribution of plants and animals.
This is the study of biogeography and it tracks parallel convergent and divergent evolution as continental drift has occurred. Eg the ancestors of our eucalypts and banksias are exactly the same as the ancestors of proteas found in Africa. Divergent evolution has given rise to the species that exist in Australia and africa now. These have developed in ISOLATION. another form os this evidence is migration followed by divergent evolution. EG the ancestor of the camel and llama were teh same but as they migrated divergent evolution occurred resulting in 3 main types the one humped camel, the 2 humped camel and the no humped camel - llama.


Human evolution
One of the key thing that differentiate you from other members of the genus Homo is our brain. We can compare the brain in a number of ways one is the brain capacity measured in cubic centimetres or litres. Analysis of inside the brain case has lead some researcher to be able to identify which parts of the brain were more developed. One of thee regions was the speech region. Another was the sue of the frontal lobe . Used for reasoning and planning.

Further to all this is the evidence of tools and rituals. An individual that could use a variety of tools and socialise is thought to be more evolved .. Or modern. The fact that this information could be passed to subsequent generations meant that they could build on this prior knowledge.

However these skills are probably based on natural selection and early humans possibly had many habits that assisted them to survive in their environment.

extinction

Extinction is when a species no longer survives to reproduce. We often classify a species as extinct even though there may be one or 2 individuals remaining. We would do this if we thought the individuals would not be able to get together to reproduce (because they are separted by a great distance).

Throughout time there has been a number of mass extinctions. The extinction of the dinosaurs is a case in point. The fact that the dinosaurs lived for over 100 million years indicates they were survivors so something catastrophic must have happened to make all of these extinct. theories vary from a massive meteor to enormous volcanic erruptions or a combination of these. One hypothesis points to the loss of food for so many to die at the same time. This loss of food could be the result of new iceage that killed plants or dust clouds that prevented photosynthesis.
go here for more details
http://www.endangeredspeciesinternational.org/overview.html

Can the extinct animals be brought back to life? If you watch Jurrasic Park the answer seems to be yes however, it is unlikely that enough DNA could be found to clone a new organism.
Some scientist have tried this with Thylacine DNA - an animal that hsa been extinct since approx 1930. A number of problems would exist,1 viable DNA, finding surrogate mother, infant care.

The effect of altering an ecosystem can lead to extinction
the theory goes like this
1. animals in an ecosytem can be highly adapted to their habitat within this ecosystem - they may only eat one type of food
2. if the ecosystem is destroyed/ disturbed and this food source destroyed
3. the animal will have no where to go and hence become extinct.

Deforestation is a major cause of species extinction today.
In the last 10 years
http://www.mnn.com/earth-matters/animals/photos/10-animals-presumed-extinct-in-the-last-decade/gone-the-way-of-the-dodo

Loss of biodiversity
http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/biodiversity/biodiversity/

Timeline of extinction
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_extinctions

Endangered species
http://www.endangeredspeciesinternational.org/overview5.html













































Key Concepts


Using the theory of evolution by natural selection to explain the diversity of living things and demonstrate how this is supported by a range of scientific evidence.
Outline
Outlining processes involved in natural selection including variation, isolation and selection
  • Describing biodiversity as a function of evolution
  • Investigating changes caused by natural selection in a particular population as a result of a specified selection pressure, such as artificial selection in breeding for desired characteristics
  • Relating genetic characteristics to survival and reproductive rates
  • Evaluating and interpreting evidence for evolution, including the fossil record, chemical and anatomical similarities, and geographical distribution of species




NAME:

Science Quest
TEXTBOOK
SCIENCE Quest PRACTICALS / ACTIVITIES
SCIENCE Quest
HOMEWORK
OTHER ACTIVITIES/RESOURCES
1
3.4 Natural Selection
- is about being better suited to a particular environment and having an increased chance of surviving long enough to be able to have offspring that will take your genes into the next generation.
  • INQUIRY: Investigation 3.2
- Modelling Natural Selection
  • INVESTIGATE, THINK AND REPORT – Qn 13 - The English peppered moth.
  • Worksheets
3.1 Struggling to Survive
3.2 Isolation and New Species
Homework Qn’s (p.93) 1 -10
Education Perfect
‘Yr 10 Scientific Understanding’
2.Explaining Evolution
2.1 – Natural Selection
2.2 – Artificial Selection
2.3 – Examples of Evolution

extension this is a short series of videos on iTunesU -it set at a uni levelITunes U course evolution

P
lay the natural selection game
http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/evolution/what-is-evolution/natural-selection-game/the-evolution-experience.html
Q3. How does natural selection aid the process of evolution?
PART II.
Directions:
You are going to play a game that mimics the process of natural selection.
You are to eat as many bugs as you can in each round (Both blue and green)
Pay close attention to the bar graph after each round. The blue bar shows the relative number of blue insects and the green bar
shows the relative number of green insects.
2
3.5 Patterns, Order and Organisation Evolution - Variation, struggle for survival, selective advantage and inheritance of advantageous variations formed the basis for Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection. It also provided an explanation for how new species arise.
.How a new species evolves (eles – 0162) – Activity to learn how a new species can form over time through the process of evolution.


UNDERSTANDING AND INQUIRING Qn’s(p.96) 1 -10

3
3.6 Long, Long Ago
A long time ago the continents were joined together.
  • INQUIRY: INVESTIGATION 3.3 Activity(p.100)
- 4.6 billion years of history
3.3 Geological time
  • Use the Madagascar weblink to watch a video and read about the geological and evolutionary history of Madagascar.
UNDERSTANDING AND INQUIRING Qn’s(p.101) 1 -4
Education Perfect
‘Yr 10 Scientific Understanding’
3.Evidence
3.1 – fossils
3.2 – Living Species
3.3 – Plate Tectonics & Biogeography
4
3.9 – More Evidence for Evolution
The theory of evolution by natural selection was developed by Darwin and Wallace. Since then, more evidence has been collected to further support their theory. Some of these have involved the use of new technologies.
  • Use the Whale kiosk weblink in your to work through an interactivity on whale evolution. After completing the interactivity, write a brief report that outlines how DNA evidence can be used to work out evolutionary relationships between organisms.
UNDERSTANDING AND INQUIRING Qn’s(p.113) 1 -7
Use the Whale kiosk weblink in to work through an interactivity on whale evolution. After completing the interactivity, write a brief report that outlines how DNA evidence can be used to work out evolutionary relationships between organisms.
5
3.9 Origin of whose species
The current scientific view of the origin of the species is based on Darwin's and Wallace's theory of evolution of species by natural selection. This theory changed the way many viewed the origin of life and its diversity on our planet.
  • Use the Human evolution weblink in to watch videos, try interactivities and use a timeline to learn more about human evolution.
UNDERSTANDING AND INQUIRING Qn’s (p.117) 1, 2,4,5,6.
Use the Human evolution weblink in your to watch videos, try interactivities and use a timeline to learn more about human evolution

Education Perfect
‘Yr 10 Scientific Understanding’
2.Explaining Evolution
2.1 Our Evolution
6
3.10 See you later, alligator
It has been estimated that about four species become extinct every hour. Over the next few decades, as many as one million species could be lost forever. How will the loss of biodiversity affect life on Earth?
Investigate - Choose one of the following (the approximate year of extinction is given in brackets) and describe the animal, its lifestyle and the theory of the cause of its extinction: flightless ibis (1000), giant lemur (500), giant moa (1500), aurochs (1627) or an animal of your choice.
UNDERSTANDING AND INQUIRING Qn’s p.121– 1 -9
Education Perfect
‘Yr 10 Scientific Understanding’
1. Biodiversity
1.1 Biodiversity
1.2 Extinction
7
REVISION – Looking back



8
Test



Introductory notes
http://www.edmodo.com/post/132657514

















Course 2012

Course outline this can only last 4 weeks Name: _

Test link: http://www.classroomclipboard.com/490625/Home/Test/8dcac9c67b4b474693fac8a3ffed52ae#/InitializeTest.xaml
Access code 10EVOTOP
Priority
Suggested Activities
Extension & Variation
3.1 Evolution of a Theory (p. 86)
Evolution, adaptations (structural, functional & behavioural), variation, favourable characteristics, selected, acquired characteristics, Georges Buffon, Erasmus Darwin, Jean Baptiste Lamarck, Charles Darwin, Alfred Russel Wallace, neo-Darwinism
Possible activities:Lamarck vs. Darwin; Designer animals task; Theories of evolution ICT Task (using Flip Cameras); Theories of evolution timeline; Adaptations flipchart (Interactive WB activity) OR worksheet.

Video: Fatboy Slim ‘Right Here Right Now’ Video clip (intro to evolution), The Genius of Charles Darwin.

http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/genius-charles-darwin/

Text questions: p. 92-3, Qs 1-19

Homework Book: 3.1 – Evolution Crossword
Science at Work Activities p. 93

Alternatives to Evolution: Evolution and Creationism Video; Alternative Theories activity p. 95
3.2 Evolution Explained (p. 96)
Natural selection, species, speciation, geographic isolation, subspecies, reproductive isolation, divergent evolution, convergent evolution, parallel evolution, adaptive radiation, analogous structures
Visit this site and make some notes about Evolution. You should make one paragraph about each of the links. and get a definition for each of the terms in the concept column 3.2.
Leave out the game . The game should be done as the next activity

http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/evolution/what-is-evolution/index.html

Natural Selection WorkSheet

Complete the CLOZE PASSAGE

play the natural selection game
http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/evolution/what-is-evolution/natural-selection-game/the-evolution-experience.html
Q3. How does natural selection aid the process of evolution?
PART II.
Directions:
You are going to play a game that mimics the process of natural selection.
You are to eat as many bugs as you can in each round (Both blue and green)
Pay close attention to the bar graph after each round. The blue bar shows the relative number of blue insects and the green bar
shows the relative number of green insects.
Pracs: Odd-dogs; Natural Selection (p. 103)

Text questions: p. 101-2, Qs 1-12

Homework Book: 3.2 Natural Selection
Natural selection work sheet

Possible activities: Natural selection worksheet; Natural Selection simulation; Evolution comic strip; Evolution mix & match; Steps in speciation; Comparative anatomy & types of evolution worksheet/PowerPoint (also relates to next section)
Researching selection p. 102

p. 101-2, Qs 13-21

Overview of evolution sheet (linking genetics & evolution)
3.3 Evidence for Evolution (p. 105)
Fossils, fossil record, the evolution of life, geological time scale, transitional forms, homologous structures, pentadactyl limb, embryonic development, biogeography
Possible activities: How life appeared on Earth worksheet; Geological time scale & continental drift worksheet, embryonic development worksheet, biogeography worksheet

Pracs: Studying fossils (p. 114); Studying skeletons (p. 114)

Text questions: p. 112, Qs 1-16

Homework Book: 3.3 – When am I?; 3.4 – Evolution of the horse

http://www.nhm.ac.uk/education/online-resources/webquests/webquest.php?webquest_id=7&partner_id=hist
Researching evidence for evolution p. 113

p. 112, Qs 17-21
3.4 Human Evolution (p. 115)
Primate, hominoid, Dryopithecus, Ramapithecus, Australopithecus (Southern Ape), Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo neanderthalensis, Cro magnons, Modern Homo sapiens
Possible activities: human evolution research project (partner task)

Text questions: pp. 128-9, Qs 1-23

Homework Book: 3.5 – The Hobbit
Science at Work Activities p. 122

Science at Work Activity p. 213-127
Revision
Text questions: pp. 128-9, Qs 1-23
Homework Book: 3.6 – Evolution Crossword; 3.7 – Sci-words
Interactive crossword: http://wps.pearsoned.com.au/sd4/50/12994/3326541.cw/index.html
Assessment
ICT Task, Human evolution research project, Test, any other activities/worksheets/pracs





Class Notes
Cloze Passage
WORDLIST: An Characteristics DNA IMPORTANT If It Many NOT Over POINT We a able against all and another are be being call catch causes change characteristic characteristics depend did differences different end ends enough environment etc example favourable from genetics gills gradual gradually have help if in include is less lions living longer member might more need not occur of or organism pass prey pride reproduce rise saying sea some species survive the them they think this to viablefertile warming water we will

evolution?
--One DOES NOT change into _ organism  � a species _ evolves, not one individual.
Adaptations
Variation and Favourable _
Evolution is the _ development of different species a common ancestor. To members of the same _, two organisms must be to reproduce and produce _ offspring. Evolution depends on _ number of factors. These _:
Variation  � each of a species is _ exactly the same. Instead show variation. This variation random. It cannot just _ when it is needed.
Favourable characteristics (adaptations) - members of a species show favourable characteristics that them survive in their _ while other organisms have _ that are unfavourable and _ not as likely to _.
Each member of _ species has lots of _. Through our study of , we should know that is due to differences DNA the environment. new variations are due mutations in DNA. For _, we can see in _ class that people have _ coloured eyes. Some giraffes longer necks than others _.
Variation is random. cant happen just because need it. For example, global warming causes the _ level to rise _ land to sink under _, this doesnt mean humans other animals can evolve _ just because we may them.
The types variations we are interested are the ones that living things survive. We characteristics that help a thing survive favourable characteristics.
If we have a _ of lions in which are fast and some _ slow, which do you _ will be the favourable and why? Fast, because will be more able catch their prey.
the lion is fast able to catch their , will they be able survive? If they get food they will eventually _. This will mean they on their DNA that them to be fast their offspring, resulting in fast lions.
What _ happen to the slow _? If they cant get food they will be likely to survive _. Therefore less offspring will _ up with DNA that them to be fast.
Over time, the pride up with more fast _ than slow lions.
_ POINT 1: we are _ saying the slow lions NEVER reproduce, we are they are less likely _ enough food to survive _ then reproduce. They will _ ALL die and not offspring, just less of will than the fast _. It is about survival the fittest.
IMPORTANT _ 2: at any time _ a lion change from _ slow to fast? NO. individual cant change its _. An individual cant evolve. time a SPECIES evolves. say that the favourable is selected for and _ unfavourable characteristic is selected _ (add to flowchart).
_ POINT 3: favourable characteristics on the environment. For _, thick fur is a characteristic for animals living the arctic. If global _ causes the temperature to , this characteristic may no be favourable. Therefore, if _ environment changes, what characteristics _ considered favourable will also .


Evolution
Consider the evolution of the car since the first models were developed. We can recognise an old car or a modern car because they still have the same basic plan.

Evolution through natural selection.
Offspring resemble their parents. Those best suited to the environment they will survive and breed.
There are a number of selecting agents that can make evolution keep happening.

Natural selection in action
Farmers spraying their crops with insecticide. Some survive due to their genetic resistance. Those that survive are resistant to the spray. They will survive.

Forms of evolution
  1. Parallel

    1. the evolution of geographically separated groups where they show characterisitcs shapes that are similar. Because they live in similar habitats. EG.
      Kangaroo vs Wombat - they both evolved from a common ancestor but diverged to have very different structures. Further evolution has lead to the pouch structure
    2. Wombats have a Back wards opening pouch - Kangaroo a frontward opening pouch
  2. Convergent
    1. Because they live in similar habitats - Dolphin and sharks have similar body shapes etc - but a dolphin is a mammal is fish - The dolphin has evolved from a terrestrial vertebrate - Dolphin fins and shark fins are analogous structures. These structures are the best suited for survival in this habitat and have been selected for by Natural Selection.
  3. Divergent
    1. arise from the same ancestor species but due to geographical distance (or geographical isolation) they have evolved to possess different characteristics and (look different) to each other. Eg the rosella of SE Aust compared to northern Aust - these animals can't reproduce in the wild because they are generally separated by large distances but also because they have developed different behaviours relating to mating and the time of mating. (If they are caged together they sometimes mate and produce fertile offspring) The definition of a species is - a group of organisms that can reproduce to raise fertile offspring. Eg you, Eg2 not a species is a mule - sterile - the result of a horse and donkey mating.
Homologous structures
same bones perform different functions in different species eg the pentadactyl limb.

Analogous structures
See above - convergent evolution

species, speciation, geographic isolation, subspecies, reproductive isolation, divergent evolution, convergent evolution, parallel evolution, adaptive radiation, analogous structures

Evidence for evolution

1. the fossil record
Fossils are made by preserving evidence of past life. The most common method is a body being buried by sediments and its hard parts making an imprint on the rock.

Examples of fossils include
Fossilised, bones, teeth, shells, leaves, pollen, tracks, footprints.

The rocks are lay down in an order - the oldest is at the bottom of the rock strata and the youngest is closer to the earths surface. The fossils at the bottom of the strata are older than fossils at the top of the strata. This makes the fossil record.
2. The fossil record supports evolution because we can find fossils that have gradually changed in structure over time. Eg the fossil history of the horse. p 109 Fig 3.3.12.
3. Transitional forms. - these are examples of where the fossil record has branched giving rise to two different species. - Examples include - Archaeopteryx - this is the transitional form between reptiles and birds- This animal shows in its fossil the bones of a reptile - teeth like a reptile and feathers like a bird and a hip (pelvis) like a bird..
Another example is the Lung fish _ this survives in Qld today. Its a fish with scales and gills but has a lung like a frog. It also has modified fins that act like feet and legs.
4. Anatomical studies - the study of different species bodies and comparing the similarities show that they have similar forms. Vertebrates are a good example. They all have a pentadactyl limb. This is a five digit hand with 2 bones in the forearm and one bone in the upper arm and then joined to a girdle. When we examine a dolphin fin and a bats wing and our arm we see the same bones even though some may be much larger in one species than another. see page 109 fig. 3.3.11.
5. Embryonic Development. -
This is the study of the embyro as it develops in different species. This shows similar structures as they develop in different species. One classic example is the gill slits found in sharks, fish birds and humans. Our gill slits are apparent the first few weeks after conception. It is thought that they develop into differnt structures in us. Eg one gill slit becomes our middle ear while others become our pharynx and voice box.
6. Distribution of plants and animals.
This is the study of biogeography and it tracks parallel convergent and divergent evolution as continental drift has occurred. Eg the ancestors of our eucalypts and banksias are exactly the same as the ancestors of proteas found in Africa. Divergent evolution has given rise to the species that exist in Australia and africa now. These have developed in ISOLATION. another form os this evidence is migration followed by divergent evolution. EG the ancestor of the camel and llama were teh same but as they migrated divergent evolution occurred resulting in 3 main types the one humped camel, the 2 humped camel and the no humped camel - llama.



Lesson
Outline
Resources needed
1
Introduction
Discussion: what is evolution?
- Explains how life evolves
- Explains how a particular species can survive in a particular environment while another species would not
- Is the gradual development of different species from a common ancestor

Opposing view of evolution is creationism – what you believe is up to you.

Video Clip: Fatboy Slim – Right Here, Right Now.
Stress that one organism DOES NOT change into another organism – a species gradually evolves, not one individual.

Adaptations
Discussion: firstly going to look at how organisms are able to survive in their environment.

From text: read through pp. 86-87 under Adaptations.

Adaptations Worksheet: have a go on your own, then come up & do on IWB.

Variation and Favourable Characteristics
Notes: evolution is the gradual development of different species from a common ancestor. To be members of the same species, two organisms must be able to reproduce and produce viable/fertile offspring. Evolution depends on a number of factors. These include:
  1. Variation – each member of a species is NOT exactly the same. Instead they show variation. This variation is random. It cannot just occur when it is needed.

  1. Favourable characteristics (adaptations) - some members of a species will show favourable characteristics that help them survive in their environment while other organisms have characteristics that are unfavourable and are not as likely to survive.

Discussion: each member of a species has lots of differences. Through our study of genetics, we should know that this is due to differences in DNA & the environment. Many new variations are due to mutations in DNA. For example, we can see in the class that people have different coloured eyes. Some giraffes have longer necks than others etc.

Variation is random. It can’t happen just because we need it. For example, if global warming causes the sea level to rise & all land to sink under water, this doesn’t mean humans or other animals can evolve gills just because we may need them.

The types of variations we are interested in are the ones that help living things survive. We call characteristics that help a living thing survive favourable characteristics.

Draw flowchart on the board: For example, if we have a pride of lions in which some are fast and some are slow, which do you think will be the favourable characteristic and why? Fast, because they will be more able to catch their prey.

If the lion is fast & able to catch their prey, will they be able to survive? If they get enough food they will eventually reproduce. This will mean they pass on their DNA that causes them to be fast to their offspring, resulting in more fast lions.

What might happen to the slow lions? If they can’t get enough food they will be less likely to survive & reproduce. Therefore less offspring will end up with DNA that causes them to be fast.

Over time, the pride ends up with more fast lions than slow lions.

IMPORTANT POINT 1: we are not saying the slow lions will NEVER reproduce, we are saying they are less likely. They will not ALL die and not have offspring, just less of them will than the fast lions. It is about survival of the fittest.

IMPORTANT POINT 2: at any time did a lion change from being slow to fast? NO. An individual can’t change its DNA. An individual can’t evolve. Over time a SPECIES evolves. We say that the favourable characteristic is selected for and the unfavourable characteristic is selected against (add to flowchart).

IMPORTANT POINT 3: favourable characteristics depend on the environment. For example, thick fur is a favourable characteristic for animals living in the arctic. If global warming causes the temperature to rise, this characteristic may no longer be favourable. Therefore, if the environment changes, what characteristics are considered favourable will also change.

Designer Animal Task
Have rest of lesson to complete task. Pick one of the environments. On the back of the piece of paper draw the animal and label the features that make it able to survive in the environment.
Computer & data projector

Interactive Whiteboard
2
Natural Selection
Natural selection worksheet

Peppered moth simulation
Computer room
3
Theories of Evolution
Discussion: natural selection is the accepted theory of evolution. However before Darwin developed it many others developed theories.

From text: read pp.88 under ‘Early theories of Evolution.’

Discussion:
Lamarck proposed that characteristics were developed by an individual as they were needed. These are called acquired characteristics. For example, a giraffe would grow a longer neck to reach leaves high in the trees. Lamarck thought the long neck would then be passed on to the offspring. This is impossible, as the characteristics of an individual are determined by their DNA. (e.g. someone who has had their arm amputated does not have children with amputated arms – having the arm amputated doesn’t change their DNA).

Speciation
Read p. 98 and complete speciation worksheet.

4
Video Planning
Talk through task
Script needs to be handed in at the end of the lesson.
Will be recording on: . Need to have all materials then.

5
Video Recording
Have this lesson only to record your video.
Only allowed in the following areas: _
Must check out flip cams & will not be allowed to leave until I have all materials back. Please be careful as they are expensive.
Must be back in the room at: _

6
Types of Evolution and Comparative Anatomy
Complete worksheet
Re-cap using PowerPoint

7
Fossils
Read p. 104 (fossil record), p. 106-107 (a changing record & an incomplete record) & p. 108 (transitional forms)
Discuss each concept
Show fossils in S5

The Evolution of Life
Complete worksheet

Geological Timescale

7
Geological Time Scale
Complete worksheet

Embryonic Development
Read p. 109 together
Complete worksheet

8
Biogeography
Read p. 110 together
Complete biogeography worksheet.

Human Evolution
From text: read through p. 115 as an introduction to primates.

PowerPoint: go through PowerPoint as an introduction to different types of humans that have existed.

9
Human Evolution
Human Evolution Research Task
- Will be working in pairs to create a timeline of human evolution.
- There are 8 types of humans that need to be included – you will do 4 each
- Use table to complete the research
- Need to include a bibliography
- Go through rubric
- On your timeline, indicate who did which parts – I can mark separately if your partner is doing no work
- Have this lesson & next lesson only
Computer room
10
Human Evolution
Human Evolution Research Task
- Continue from last lesson
- Due on:
Computer room
11
Test

Other
Homework book activities that could be used –