Yr 10 Semester 1 Revision

Genetics

Revision outline

How to study Science
1 make a glossary - every topic has a guide sheet - in the guide sheet there is a list of words and terms you should know -
2. Collect your notes - the guide sheet is a course outline that lists the main concepts you should learn and the main activities you should do. You should build your notes from your text and your notebook - but make sure you have information on each of the ideas listed in your guide sheet.
3. Sumarise your notes - a good summary will include diagrams and experiments that summarise the key concepts of each topic
4. convert all this into a concept map - you are aiming to get it down to a half page for each topic. Don't worry if yours is a bit bigger

Before the exam - get friends to test you on the glossary,
try to redraw the diagrams in your summary
complete and test or practice questions

Use assesson test yourself for each of the topics we have done so far.

The Exam
Multiple choice --- about 30 ques
Longer answers

topics
Headstart - genetics
Chemical reactions ( this topic )
Chemical patterns

Main ideas for first semester test


Genetics know the terms - mitosis, meiosis, dominance, incomplete dominance, sex linked gametes, allels. hybrid, cloning, fertilisation, DNA, gene, amino acid, bases, diploid, haploid, X linked, chromosomes, recessive, dominant, homologous, homozygus, heterozygus,
Genetics know why and how - to interpret pedigree charts, punet squares, genetic diseases use the terms correctly in an answer.












Here are some old revision sheets for genetics - I have also sent a new revision sheet via edmodo.



Download a word version here



Another revision sheet with pedigrees





Chemistry revision.

SAmple questions for the exam
Draw a electron dot diagram of the atom sodium.
Name 2 other elements in the same group as Na
Name 2 elements in the same period as C
How many neutrons will Na have if it has an atomic number of 11 and an atomic mass of 23?
Elements in the same group have similar properites. why?
Write the electronic configuration of Oxygen
What are the properties of nion metals?
where are non metals found in the periodic table
Where re metals found in the periodic table give 4 examples what are metalic properties




Evolution Revision










Principles of Heredity Revision













Part A: Circle the letter of the term or phrase which correctly completes the statement







  1. Which of the following describes the differences in bases present on DNA and RNA:
    1. A replaces G B. U replaces T C. M replaces C D. N replaces A







  1. A dominant trait or characteristic is one that:
    1. Skips a generation C. Prevents another trait from showing
    2. Is hidden C. Is only in females







  1. The number of chromosomes in a human male sperm cell is:
    1. 20 B. 46 C. 13 D. 23







  1. Two X chromosomes are found in cells of all:
    1. Human males B. Human females C. Fruit flies D. Living things







  1. A hybrid or heterozygous organism can be defined as an organism having:
    1. Two recessive genes C. Two dominant genes
    2. A dominant and a recessive gene D. Three recessive genes







  1. The formation of sex cells (sperm and ova) is called:
    1. Mitosis B. Breeding C. A Punnett square D. Meiosis







  1. In a cross between a pure (homozygous) and a hybrid (heterozygous) yellow-seeded pea plant (i.e. YY with Yy), the percentage of offspring showing the dominant trait or characteristic will be:
    1. 100% B. 0% C. 25% D. 75%







  1. Human males produce sperm cells with the chromosomes:
    1. X only B. Y only C. XX D. X or Y







  1. The passing of traits from parents to offspring is called:
    1. Blending B. Mutation C. Heredity D. Vigour







  1. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of DNA:
    1. It has a helical (spiral) shape C. It is found in the cell walls of all cells
    2. It contains sugar, phosphate and bases D. It codes for inherited traits and proteins







  1. The term selective breeding refers to:
    1. Organisms whose genes have been changed artificially
    2. Removing some DNA or genes from an individual, changing it, and putting it back in the same person.
    3. A ‘map’ of all the genetic material in humans
    4. Purposely breeding organisms that have favourable traits







  1. The percentage of offspring with the dominant trait if both parents are pure (homozygous) recessive is:
    1. 0% B. 25% C. 50% D. 100%







  1. Which of the following statements about autosomal cells is NOT true:
    1. The chromosome number is haploid
    2. The nucleus contains 46 chromosomes
    3. They reproduce by mitosis
    4. Cell reproduction produces identical cells







Part B







Use the word homozygous/pure or heterozygous/hybrid to identify each of the following genotypes.







  1. HH: 2. hh: 3. Hh:







Use the code R for recessive and D for dominant to identify which trait will be shown in individuals with the following phenotypes:







4. GG: 5. gg: 6. G _: 7. Gg:







A black guinea pig is mated with a black guinea pig. Fifteen black and five white offspring are produced.







8. Were the parent guinea pigs homozygous or heterozygous?



9. Were the white offspring homozygous or heterozygous? _







10. How many of the offspring were probably hybrid? _







A black guinea pig is mated with a white guinea pig. All offspring (42) were black.







11. Which trait is dominant, black or white? _







12. Which trait is recessive, black or white? _







13. Are the offspring homozygous or heterozygous?







14. Was the black parent homozygous or heterozygous? ___











Part D



1. Let the allele for tallness in pea plants be represented by T and the allele for shortness be represented by t. Using Punnett squares, solve the following problems:










T
t
t


t







If you cross a Tt plant with a tt plant, what are the probable offspring? Complete the Punnett square and write the number of appropriate offspring in the blanks to the left.







No. of tall plants produced: _



No. of short plants produced: _



No. of homozygous tall produced: _



No. of heterozygous tall produced: _



No. of homozygous short produced: _










T
T
T


t







If you cross a TT plant with a Tt plant, what are the probable offspring?







No. of tall plants produced: _



No. of short plants produced: _



No. of homozygous tall produced: _



No. of heterozygous tall produced: _



No. of homozygous short produced: _







2a. Explain the process of therapeutic cloning: _



_



2b. Provide the results of the human genome project:



___







Answers: Part A: 1B, 2C, 3D, 4B, 5B, 6D, 7A, 8D, 9C, 10C, 11D, 12A, 13A. Part B: 1. Homozygous 2. Homozygous 3. Heterozygous 4. Dominant 5. Recessive 6. Dominant 7. Dominant 8. Heterozygous 9. Homozygous 10. Half 11. Black 12. White 13. Heterozygous 14. Homozygous Part C: 1. Male 2. Normal 3. Female 4. Albino 5. Children 6. Nn 7. nn 8. Nn 9. nn Part D: 1a. 2, 2, 0,2, 2 1b. 4, 0, 2, 2, 0 2a. Take DNA from healthy cell & transfer to egg -> allow 5 days to grow into blastocyst -> collect stem cells in growth media -> transplant 2b. All people have 99% same DNA, 6% usefulDNA, 32000 genes coding for approx. 26000 proteins of which not all functions are known yet!





Another set of questions






  1. Use the following experiment results to determine which trait is dominant and which are recessive.



Trait
Results
Dominant (D) or Recessive (R)
Seed colour
Grey = 705, White = 224
Grey = White =
Seed shape
Wrinkled = 180, Round = 400
Wrinkled = Round =
Pod colour
Green = 450, Yellow = 150
Green = Yellow =



  1. Determine the genotype, phenotype and the proportion of each offspring for each of the following.



  1. R = red, W = white, RW = red and white b. R = red, r = white




R




R
r
r


r




W
||
R


W





% red = Fraction red =

% white = Fraction white =

% red and white =



c. CY = Yellow, CW = white, CY CW = cream d. R = red, r = white











CY
CW
CW


CW










r
r
R


R























Ratio of CWCW : CYCW : CYCY % red = % white =

= : :





  1. For each of the pedigrees above, state whether complete dominance, incomplete dominance or co-dominance is shown.



  1. b.

c. d.



  1. Use the following information to complete Punnett squares and analyse the percentages of each offspring.



  1. A homozygous dominant male plant is b. A heterozygous male plant is crossed

crossed with a homozygous recessive female plant. with a heterozygous female plant.
























































% = % = % = % = __



  1. Match the following terms with their definitions:



A) DNA
  1. Different gene types
B) Homozygous
  1. Containing half the number of chromosomes, such as in sex cells
C) Codominance
  1. Sex cells such as sperm in males or ova in females
D) Recessive
  1. Body cells that reproduce by mitosis to produce identical daughter cells
E) Meiosis
  1. The process of producing sex cells
F) Somatic cells
  1. Gene that is not dominant or expressed unless homozygous
G) Gametes
  1. Genes that are equally dominant
H) Haploid
  1. Having alleles that are identical
I) Allele
iv. Chemical that codes for different proteins/hormones to determine body traits



A = _ B = _ C = _ D = _ E = _ F = _ G = _ H = _ I = _



  1. Provide the complimentary base pairing for the following DNA sequences:
    1. A G C T G G T = b. G C C G T A =



  1. Complete the following sentences by circling the correct answer.
    1. Gametes undergo (mitosis/meiosis) and the daughter cells are (diploid/haploid) and (identical/similar).
    2. Somatic cells undergo (mitosis/meiosis) and the daughter cells are (diploid/haploid) and (identical/similar).
    3. If all the chromosomes in an animal are homozygous they are (identical/different) and the animal will be (pure bred/hybrid)
    4. If all the chromosomes in an animal are heterozygous they are (identical/different) and the animal will be pure bred/hybrid)
    5. If a person has a recessive genetic disease, they inherited (0 / 1 / 2) of the allele for the disease from each parent.
    6. Males have (22 / 23) pairs of autosomal chromosomes and (XX / XY) sex chromosomes.
    7. Females have (22 / 23) pairs of autosomal chromosomes and (XX / XY) sex chromosomes.



Answers: 1a) I1 = Nn, I2 = Nn, II1 = nn, II2 = Nn, II3 = nn, II4 = Nn, II5 = Nn, III1 = nn, III2 = Nn, III3 = nn, III4 = Nn or NN. 1b) I1= Nn, I2 = Nn, II1 = Nn, II2 = Nn, II3 = Nn, II4 = Nn, III1 = nn, III2 = Nn or NN, III3 = nn, III4 = nn. 2. Grey = D White = R, Wrinkled = R Round = D, Green = D Wrinkled = R. 3a) 25% red, 25% white, 50% red and white 3b) ½ red, ½ white 3c) 2:1:0 3d) 100% red, 0% white 4a) codominance 4b) complete dominance 4c) incomplete dominance 4d) complete dominance 5a) 100% heterozygous (e.g. Hh) 5b) 25% homozygous dominant (e.g. HH), 50% heterozygous (e.g. Hh), 25% homozygous recessive (e.g. hh) 6) A = iv, B = viii, C = vii, D = vi, E = V, F = iv, G = iii, H = ii, I = I 7a) TCGACCA 7b) CGGCAT 8a) meiosis, haploid, similar 8b) mitosis, diploid, identical 8c) identical, pure bred 8d) different, hybrid 8e) 1 8f) 22, XY 8g) 22, XX.
Light, know the terms -transparent, translucent, opaque, luminous, reflection, refraction, dispersion, scattering, focal length, critical angle, lens, convex, concave,
Light know why and how - lenses magnify things, rainbows are produced, Refraction makes things appear bent, Compare short wave length and long wave length and amplitude of waves
Materials know these terms - properties of metals, metallic bonds, alloys, organic compounds, monomers, polymers, Minerals, Ores, electrolysis, froth flotation, separation, cations, electrons, thermoplastics, thermosets, crosslinked,
Materials know why and how - Different properties of metals, properties of different plastics, examples of all these, how structure relates to the properties of plastics and metals and alloys, advantages and disadvantages of each, corrosion,
Light

Materials


powerpoint of all the topics