Before you start these revision questions you will need to prepare yourself by

Making your Revision outline

How to study Science
1 make a glossary - every topic has a guide sheet - in the guide sheet there is a list of words and terms you should know -
2. Collect your notes - the guide sheet is a course outline that lists the main concepts you should learn and the main activities you should do. You should build your notes from your text and your notebook - but make sure you have information on each of the ideas listed in your guide sheet.
3. Sumarise your notes - a good summary will include diagrams and experiments that summarise the key concepts of each topic
4. convert all this into a concept map - you are aiming to get it down to a half page for each topic. Don't worry if yours is a bit bigger

Before the exam - get friends to test you on the glossary,
try to redraw the diagrams in your summary
complete and test or practice questions

Use assesson test yourself for each of the topics we have done so far.



Here is an outline of the topics and key words and ideas that will be tested in the semester 2 exam

The Year 10 End of semester 2 exam Topics along with key words


The Universe

  1. Constellations, galaxies, nebulae, parallax
  2. Nuclear fusion, corona, sunspots, aurora borealis, aurora australis, ionosphere
  3. Protostar, magnitude ,apparent magnitude, absolute magnitude, main sequence, red giant, pulsating star, planetary nebula, white dwarf, supergiants, supernova, neutron star, black hole.
  4. Doppler effect, frequency, spectrum, wavelength, red shift, blue shift,
  5. Cosmology, big bang theory, absolute zero,
  6. Chapters 6.1 up to and including 6.5

Evolution

Chapters 3.3 3.4, 3.5, 3.8 and 3.9

Terms
  • natural selection, variation, isolation and convergent and divergent evolution, mutation, genes inheritance, species, selection pressures, geographical isolation, continental drift, embryology, caomparative anatomy, pentadactyl limb, fossil record, interpreting rock strat and fossil record. Geographical distribution, extinction
  • biodiversity as a function of evolution, causes of natural selection
  • Relating genetic characteristics to survival and reproductive rates
  • Darwin’s theory, Alfred Wallace, ideas that support the theory
  • Human evolution – general timeline, H. sapiens, H neanderthalis, H. erectus, H habilis
  • Language, cultural organisation,

Movement – students will be provided with a list of equations to use in this section

Chapters 8.1 to 8.9 inclusive
terms , speed, velocity, average speed, acceleration, deceleration, Distance, displacement, initial velocity, final velocity, Force, (gravity, air resistance, elastic, friction, buoyancy, push, pull, contact forces compared to non contact forces. Weight compared to mass, energy, Potenetial energy (PE = mgh) graphs (distance / time, velocity/ time) Describing motion given a graph. Plotting graphs. Newton’s laws of motion (first, second, Third) momentum, work, KE, airbag, crumple zones, collision, using correct units (eg F in Newtons, Veocity in m/s Acceleration in m/s/s, Energy in joules)
Energy efficiency
Convert units eg km/hr to m/s,

Some questions to test your recall on major ideas



  1. Astronomy

  2. What is the big bang
  3. how old is the universe?
  4. how old is earth?
  5. how old is the sun?
  6. These form part of the life cycle of a star - what are the features of
  7. supernova,
  8. red dwarf
  9. black hole
  10. red giant
  11. Where would you look in the night sky to see another galaxy?
  12. the constellation orion
  13. whats the difference between a galaxy and constellation and a gas giant
  14. what is space made of
  15. what elements form the reactants of the star's source of energy
  16. what elements form the products of a stars source of energy
  17. write the word equation for a star's reaction that makes light and heat (that is its source of energy)
  18. Alpha centauri is our closest star apart from the sun. it is 2.5 light years from us. What does this mean? how far in kilometres is this?
  19. How do astronomers use the doppler effect?
  20. how is parralax error used to measure distances to stars
  21. Physics of motion

  22. what 2 measurements would you require to determine the speed of an object - wh
  23. how is velocity different to speed
  24. how is distance different to displacment
  25. how do the units of speed (km/hr) indicate how to measure speed?
  26. when you accelerate what is constantly changing?
  27. what are the units for acceleration?
  28. Determine the speed of a ball that covers a distance of 22m in 0.5 seconds.
  29. List Newtons three laws and any formula that are associated with them.
  30. A year 8 student described a force as a push or a pull - is this correct? give 4 examples of different types of force.
  31. How is force different to energy
  32. In an accident crumple zones increase the time for the car to come to a complete stop. How does this save lives?
  33. what is deceleration?
  34. draw a velocity time graph and on the same graph to show acceleration, deceleration and constant veleocity
  35. Why does an astronaut move backwards if they throw a spanner forward
  36. calculations
  37. find distance if speed =40 m/s and time =4
  38. find acceleration if initial velocity = 3 m/s final velocity = 10m/s and time =3 s
  39. find force if mass = 30kg and acceleration = 5 m/s/s
  40. find average speed in km/hr if a trip of 400km takes 3.5 hours
  41. Evolution revision questions
  42. 1. whats the difference between convergent and divergent evolution.
  43. 2. how does natural selection lead to evolution
  44. 3. how are the following used as proof of evolution
  45. homologius structures
  46. artificial selection
  47. biogeography
  48. what was the role of Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallis in the development of the theory of evolution
  49. Give an example of
    (i) structural adaptation
    (ii) behavioural adaptation
    (iii) functional adaptation
    50. How have these adaptations helped the organism to survive.
    51. What is Darwin’s theory of evolution using the terms ‘natural selection’ and ‘survival of the fittest’.
    52. Explain each of the three types of evolution giving an example of each
    (i) Divergent evolution
    (ii) Convergent evolution
    (iii) Parallel evolution
    53. Define the following terms
    (i) aquatic
    (ii) terrestrial
    (iii) embryo
    (iv) continental drift
    (v) analogous structures
    (vi) homologous structures
    43. How does a knowledge of DNA and the genetic code support the theory of evolution?


Physics revision:
The following formulae are provided in the exam:
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F = ma
W = Fd
GPE = mgh
g = 9.8 m/s2

  1. What does each of the symbols represent:
    1. v=
    2. d=
    3. t=
    4. Δv=
    5. F=
    6. W=
    7. a=
    8. g=
    9. GPE=
    10. m=
    11. You ride your bike to school at an average speed of 20kph. It take you 6 minutes to get to school.
      1. How far do you live from school?

  1. What formula did you use?


  1. The next morning you ride to your friend’s place, it takes you 10 minutes at 20 kph, then you both ride to school at 15 kph. What is the total distance you travelled?

  1. Write in words the meaning of
    1. Acceleration

  1. Velocity

  1. Speed


  1. What are Newton’s three laws
1st Law

2nd Law

3rd Law

  1. As a car approaches a red traffic light, it slows down to 20kph. The light turns green and the driver puts her foot on the accelerator to reach 50 kph in 5 seconds.
    1. What is the acceleration of the car?

  1. What formula did you use?

  1. What is the opposing force to the thrust of the motor in causing acceleration?

  1. What is inertia?


  1. Mrs Egan’s daughter is rushing to the hospital to have her baby. The hospital is 5k from her house and Glenn travels at an average speed of 50kph.
    1. How long will it take them to get to the hospital?

  1. What formula did you use?

  1. Draw the car and draw and name each of the forces acting on it


  1. Draw the Life Cycle of a Star, naming each stage



Some answers

1. Astronomy

2. What is the big bang -
--- Answer---
a theory for how the universe was created
3. how old is the universe? -
--- Answer---
13.8 billion years
4. how old is earth?
--- Answer---
4.5 billion
5. how old is the sun?
--- Answer---
4.5 billion
6. These form part of the life cycle of a star - what are the features of
7. supernova, -
--- Answer---
8. red dwarf
--- Answer---
9. black hole
--- Answer---
10. red giant
--- Answer---
11. Where would you look in the night sky to see another galaxy?
--- Answer---
12. the constellation orion
--- Answer---
13. whats the difference between a galaxy and constellation and a gas giant
--- Answer---
14. what is space made of
--- Answer---
15. what elements form the reactants of the star's source of energy
--- Answer---
16. what elements form the products of a stars source of energy
--- Answer---
17. write the word equation for a star's reaction that makes light and heat (that is its source of energy)
--- Answer---
18. Alpha centauri is our closest star apart from the sun. it is 2.5 light years from us. What does this mean? how far in kilometres is this?
--- Answer---
19. How do astronomers use the doppler effect?
--- Answer---
20. how is parralax error used to measure distances to stars
--- Answer---

21. Physics of motion

22. what 2 measurements would you require to determine the speed of an object - s the distance it travel and the time taken to travel the distance = S = distance/ time
23. how is velocity different to speed --- Answer---the velocity has direction usually measured in m/s v= displacement / time
24. how is distance different to displacement
--- Answer---
the displacement is how far you are from your starting position in a straight line - distance is the overall length you have travelled ( it may be in a circle)
25. how do the units of speed (km/hr) indicate how to measure speed?
--- Answer---
the km represents distance / hr represents time
26. when you accelerate what is constantly changing?
--- Answer---
the velocity is changing acceleration = (final velocity - initial velocity) / time
27. what are the units for acceleration?
--- Answer---
the units are m/s/s
28. Determine the speed of a ball that covers a distance of 22m in 0.5 seconds.
--- Answer---
speed = distance /time sub in the values 22/0.5 =44m/s
29. List Newtons three laws and any formula that are associated with them.
--- Answer---
1st- a body will stay at rest until a force acts on it ,
2nd F = ma,, A force is created by a mass being accelerated - F =ma and a = v - u / t,,,
3rd For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction, - F= ma and momentum = mv
more details go here
http://www.physics4kids.com/files/motion_laws.html
30. A year 8 student described a force as a push or a pull - is this correct? give 4 examples of different types of force.
--- Answer---
gravity, electrical, resistance, lift,
31. How is force different to energy
--- Answer---
Energy is the ability to do work it provides the power for the force to do something = e.g. GPE and gravity
32. In an accident crumple zones increase the time for the car to come to a complete stop. How does this save lives?
--- Answer---
- slows you to a stop slower than you would normally come to a stop. Therefore deceleration is slowed and transfer of V >1 to V=0 is slower and time for energy to be changed to sound and heat and not all transferred to the body of the driver
33. what is deceleration?
--- Answer---
slowing down
34. draw a velocity time graph and on the same graph to show acceleration, deceleration and constant velocity
--- Answer---
go here to see examples of these types of graphs
https://www.pinterest.com/mrwallis/distance-time-graph/

35. Why does an astronaut move backwards if they throw a spanner forward -
--- Answer---
every action there is an equal and opposite reaction - i.e. the astronaut would move backward in proportion to the force the spanner is thrown and dependent on the mass of the spanner and the astronaut.
36. calculations
37. find distance if speed =40 m/s and time =4
--- Answer---
s=d/t 40 = d/t d=160 m
38. find acceleration if initial velocity = 3 m/s final velocity = 10m/s and time =3 s
--- Answer---
a = (v - u)/t a = (10-3) / 3 a = 2.33 m/s/s
39. find force if mass = 30kg and acceleration = 5 m/s/s
--- Answer---
F = ma F = 30 x 5 F = 150 N
40. find average speed in km/hr if a trip of 400km takes 3.5 hours
--- Answer---
av speed = total distance / total time s = 400 / 3.5 s = 114 km/hr

Evolution revision questions
41. whats the difference between convergent and divergent evolution.
--- Answer---

42. how does natural selection lead to evolution
--- Answer---

43. how are the following used as proof of evolution
--- Answer---

homologius structures
artificial selection
biogeography
what was the role of Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace in the development of the theory of evolution
45. Give an example of
--- Answer---

(i) structural adaptation
(ii) behavioural adaptation
(iii) functional adaptation
46. How have these adaptations helped the organism to survive.
--- Answer---

47. What is Darwin’s theory of evolution using the terms ‘natural selection’ and ‘survival of the fittest’.
--- Answer---

48. Explain each of the three types of evolution giving an example of each
--- Answer---

(i) Divergent evolution
(ii) Convergent evolution
(iii) Parallel evolution
49. Define the following terms

--- Answer---

(i) aquatic
(ii) terrestrial
(iii) embryo
(iv) continental drift

(v) analogous structures
(vi) homologous structures
50. How does a knowledge of DNA and the genetic code support the theory of evolution?
--- Answer---


  1. Chemistry of reactions

  2. assumed knowledge - semester 1 chemistry
  3. wrtie the general word equation for
  4. • neutralisation reaction
  5. • acid + carbonate reaction
  6. Write the word equation for a combustion reaction where octane is burnt
  7. write a balanced symbol equation for this reaction
  8. give example of thermosetting plastic and where and why it is used
  9. give an example of thermoplastic plastic and where and why it is used in this way
  10. write a balanced symbol equation for a precipitation reaction between potassium iodide and lead nitrate.
  11. two clear solutions were added together the products was a milky solution - what tyoe of reaction is this? How do you know this was a chemical reaction? what other observation would lead you to conclude a chemical reaction has occurred
  12. Use your ion table ( or go here) and write balanced molecuar formulae for
  13. zinc chloride
  14. magnesium nitrate
  15. magnesium carbonate
  16. What is rust? how does it form
41. Chemistry of reactions
42. assumed knowledge - semester 1 chemistry
43. wrtie the general word equation for
44. • neutralisation reaction
45. • acid + carbonate reaction
46. Write the word equation for a combustion reaction where octane is burnt
47. write a balanced symbol equation for this reaction
48. give example of thermosetting plastic and where and why it is used
49. give an example of thermoplastic plastic and where and why it is used in this way
50. write a balanced symbol equation for a precipitation reaction between potassium iodide and lead nitrate.
51. two clear solutions were added together the products was a milky solution - what tyoe of reaction is this? How do you know this was a chemical reaction? what other obseravtion would lead you to conclude a chemical reaction has occurred
52. Use your ion table ( or go here) and write balanced molecuar formulae for
53. zinc chloride
54. magnesium nitrate
55. magnesium carbonate
56. What is rust? how does it form
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