Year 10 Genetics


Class Notes Genetics

2018 Oxford text book
Suggested teaching program
Chapter 1: Genetics
Time allocation: 5 weeks

Context and overview
In year 10, students explain the processes that underpin heredity by exploring the transmission of heritable characteristics from one generation to the next. Students evaluate the validity and reliability of claims made in secondary sources with reference to currently held scientific views, and construct evidence-based arguments to communicate science ideas for specific purposes.
Syllabus outcomes addressed
• The transmission of heritable characteristics from one generation to the next involves DNA and genes VCSSU119
• Scientific understanding, including models and theories, are contestable and are refined over time through a process of review by the scientific communityVCSSU114
• Advances in scientific understanding often rely on developments in technology and technological advances are often linked to scientific discoveries VCSSU115
• The values and needs of contemporary society can influence the focus of scientific researchVCSSU116
• Formulate questions or hypotheses that can be investigated scientifically, including identification of independent, dependent and controlled variables VCSIS134
• Independently plan, select and use appropriate investigation types, including fieldwork and laboratory experimentation, to collect reliable data, assess risk and address ethical issues associated with these investigation typesVCSIS135
• Select and use appropriate equipment and technologies to systematically collect and record accurate and reliable data, and use repeat trials to improve accuracy, precision and reliabilityVCSIS136
• Construct and use a range of representations, including graphs, keys, models and formulas, to record and summarise data from students’ own investigations and secondary sources, to represent qualitative and quantitative patterns or relationships, and distinguish between discrete and continuous data VCSIS137
• Analyse patterns and trends in data, including describing relationships between variables, identifying inconsistencies in data and sources of uncertainty, and drawing conclusions that are consistent with evidenceVCSIS138
• Use knowledge of scientific concepts to evaluate investigation conclusions, including assessing the approaches used to solve problems, critically analysing the validity of information obtained from primary and secondary sources, suggesting possible alternative explanations and describing specific ways to improve the quality of dataVCSIS139
• Communicate scientific ideas and information for a particular purpose, including constructing evidence-based arguments and using appropriate scientific language, conventions and representations VCSIS140
Achievement standards
Students explain the processes that underpin heredity and evolution. Students analyse how the models and theories they use have developed over time and discuss the factors that prompted their review.
Students develop questions and hypotheses that can be investigated using a range of inquiry skills. They independently design and improve appropriate methods of investigation including the control and accurate measurement of variables and systematic collection of data. They explain how they have considered reliability, precision, safety, fairness and ethics in their methods and identify where digital technologies can be used to enhance the quality of data. They analyse trends in data, explain relationships between variables and identify sources of uncertainty. When selecting evidence and developing and justifying conclusions, they account for inconsistencies in results and identify alternative explanations for findings. Students evaluate the validity and reliability of claims made in secondary sources with reference to currently held scientific views, the quality of the methodology and the evidence cited. They construct evidence-based arguments and use appropriate scientific language, representations and balanced chemical equations when communicating their findings and ideas for specific purposes.




Student book section
AC Syllabus links
Suggested indicators of learning and understanding
Suggested teaching and learning activities
Resources
1.1 Scientists review the research of other scientists
(pages 2–3)
Science Understanding
VCSSU119

Science as a human endeavour
VCSSU114

Science Inquiry Skills
VCSIS134, VCSIS135 VCSIS138
VCSIS139
VCSIS140
By the end of this unit, students should be able to:
• describe how Mendel’s research on pea plants formed the basics of genetics today
• explain the principles of segregation and independent assortment
• describe the contributions of different scientists, including Rosalind Franklin to Watson and cricks research on DNA.
Experiment 1.1
Extracting DNA
Students extract a sample of DNA from peas.

Alternative DNA models
Work in groups to develop an alternative model to the double helix structure.

Children resemble their parents.
Watch this animation on Mendel’s experiments with pea plants.
Oxford Science 10 resources
• Extend your understanding 1.1, page 3
• Experiment 1.1, page 192
Additional resources

Children resemble their parents
http://www.dnaftb.org/1/animation.html
1.2 DNA consists of a sugar– phosphate backbone and four complementary nitrogen bases
(pages 4–5)
Science Understanding
VCSSU119

Science Inquiry Skills
VCSIS135
VCSIS139
VCSIS138
VCSIS140
By the end of this unit, students should be able to:
• define DNA
• describe the structure of a nucleotide
• explain how nucleotides join to form a polynucleotide
• explain how complementary base pairs join
• explain the importance of DNA being able to make copies of itself and carry information.
Challenge 1.2
Modelling the structure of DNA
Students construct a model of DNA that shows the complementary bases arranged in a double helix

Constructing a DNA ladder
Cut out and arrange nucleotides to form an antiparallel DNA ladder by complementary base pairing.
Oxford Science 10 resources
• Challenge 1.2, page 193
• Check your learning 1.2, page 5
Additional resources

Constructing a DNA ladder
https://www.biologycorner.com/worksheets/dna_model_nucleotides.html

1.3 Chromosomes are DNA molecules carrying genetic information in the form of genes (pages 6–9)
Science Understanding
VCSSU119

Science Inquiry Skills
VCSIS135
VCSIS138
VCSIS139
VCSIS140
By the end of this unit, students should be able to:
• define the terms DNA, gene and chromosome and explain the relationship between them
• interpret a human karyotype
• compare the nucleic acids DNA and RNA
• explain the role of DNA and RNA in processes of transcription and translation.
Skills lab 1.3
Making protein
Students can test their knowledge of complementary sequences for DNA and RNA

Karyotypes
Complete karyotypes for three different patients by matching homologous chromosomes.
Oxford Science 10 resources
• Check your learning, page 9
• Skills lab 1.3, page 194
Additional resources

Karyotypes:
http://www.biology.arizona.edu/human_bio/activities/karyotyping/karyotyping.html
1.4 Mitosis forms new somatic cells (pages 10–11)
Science Understanding
VCSSU119

Science Inquiry Skills
VCSIS135
VCSIS136
VCSIS138
VCSIS139
VCSIS140
By the end of this unit, students should be able to:
• describe the purpose of mitosis and cytokinesis
• distinguish between diploid and haploid
• describe the stages of mitosis
• explain how two diploid somatic cells are produced in mitosis
• explain how and why a cell undergoes apoptosis.
Skills lab 1.4
Cell division in action
Students identify cells at different stages of mitosis

The cell cycle game:
Match the different images with the descriptions of different stages of mitosis.

The handy model:
Use your hands to demonstrate the key stages of mitosis.
Oxford Science 10 resources
• Check your learning, page 11
• Skills lab 1.3, page 195
Additional resources

The cell cycle game:
http://www.rigb.org/education/games/human-body/the-cell-cycle

The handy model:
Ideas can be taken from:
https://www.jstor.org/stable/4448685?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
1.5 Meiosis forms gamete cells (pages 12–13)
Science Understanding
VCSSU119

Science Inquiry Skills
VCSIS135
VCSIS139
VCSIS140
By the end of this unit, students should be able to:

• describe the stages of meiosis I and II
• explain how four haploid gametes are produced in meiosis
• compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis.
Challenge 1.5:
Modelling meiosis
Students use pipe cleaners to model the different stages of meiosis.
Oxford Science 10 resources
• Challenge 1.5, page 195
• Check your learning, page 13
1.6 Alleles can produce dominant or recessive traits (pages 14–15)
Science Understanding
VCSSU119

Science Inquiry Skills
VCSIS135
VCSIS136
VCSIS139
VCSIS140
By the end of this unit, students should be able to:
• describe alleles in relation to genes and chromosomes
• explain how combinations of dominant and recessive alleles produce different genotypes and phenotypes in individuals
• identify individuals as homozygous dominant, homozygous recessive, heterozygous, and carriers based on their genotype and phenotype
• predict genotypic and phenotypic ratios of a monohybrid cross using Punnett squares.
Experiment 1.6:
Zazzle genetics
Students create little creatures out of marshmallows and toothpicks to demonstrate how alleles determine a phenotype.

Genetic inheritance follows rules
Watch the animation to learn about monohybrid crosses.
Oxford Science 10 resources
• Check your learning, page 15
• Experiment 1.6, page 196

Additional resources
Genetic inheritance follows rules
http://www.dnaftb.org/5/animation.html
1.7 Alleles for blood group traits co-dominate (pages 16–17)
Science Understanding
VCSSU119

Science Inquiry Skills
VCSIS135
VCSIS136
VCSIS138
VCSIS139
VCSIS140
By the end of this unit, students should be able to:
• identify alleles such as A and B blood groups as being co-dominant
• describe the different genotypes and phenotypes of human blood groups
• predict genotypic and phenotypic ratios for blood groups using Punnett squares
• explain the function of different blood groups and rhesus markers and their importance.
Experiment 1.7:
Blood typing experiment
Students determine the inheritance of blood groups.
Oxford Science 10 resources
• Check your learning, page 17
• Experiment 1.7, page 197
1.8 Alleles on the sex chromosomes produce sex-linked traits (pages 18–21)
Science Understanding
VCSSU119

Science Inquiry Skills
VCSIS135
VCSIS136
VCSIS139
VCSIS140
By the end of this unit, students should be able to:
• distinguish between autosomes and sex chromosomes
• identify a trait as one of the four patterns of inheritance (autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked dominant, X-linked recessive)
• explain how and why sex-linked traits are inherited differently in males and females
• describe how different sex-linked traits such as haemophilia and red-green colour blindness are inherited
• predict genotypic and phenotypic ratios for sex-linked traits using Punnett squares.
Experiment 1.8:
Colour-blindness inheritance
Students examine the inheritance of X-linked traits.

Sex Linkage
Students can visit the Genetic Science Learning Centre website to view a number of helpful diagrams on sex-linked inheritance.
Oxford Science 10 resources
• Check your learning, page 21
• Experiment 1.8, page 198

Additional resources
Sex linkage
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/pigeons/sexlinkage/
1.9 Inheritance of traits can be shown on pedigrees (pages 22–25)
Science Understanding
VCSSU119

Science Inquiry Skills
VCSIS135
VCSIS137
VCSIS138
VCSIS139
VCSIS140
By the end of this unit, students should be able to:
• identify the specific symbols used in constructing pedigrees
• analyse and interpret pedigrees to determine if a trait is dominant or recessive.
• analyse and interpret pedigrees to determine if a trait is autosomal or sex-linked
• analyse and interpret pedigrees to predict whether an individual will inherit a disease.
Interpreting pedigree charts
Analyse each pedigree and answer the questions to determine the pattern of inheritance.
Oxford Science 10 resources
• Check your learning, pages 24–25
1.10 Mutations are changes in the DNA sequence (pages 26–29)
Science Understanding
VCSSU119

Science Inquiry Skills
VCSIS135
VCSIS140
By the end of this unit, students should be able to:
• define mutagen and mutation
• identify different types of mutagens
• distinguish between genetic and chromosomal mutations
• explain how substitution mutations alter nucleotide and amino acid sequences of a protein
• explain how frameshift mutations alter nucleotide and amino acid sequences of a protein
• explain how non-disjunction occurs during meiosis to alter chromosomal numbers in gametes
• give examples of human syndromes caused by non-disjunction.
Skills lab 1.10:
Identifying mutations
Students analyse a normal an RNA sequence and a number of mutated variations to identify what mutations have occurred.

Mutations are changes in genetic information
Watch the animation on mutations.
Oxford Science 10 resources
• Check your learning, page 29
• Skills lab 1.10, page 199

Additional resources

Mutations are changes in genetic information
http://www.dnaftb.org/27/animation.html
1.11 Genes can be tested (pages 30–31)
Science Understanding
VCSSU119

Science as a human endeavour
VCSSU115
VCSSU116

Science Inquiry Skills
VCSIS138
VCSIS140
By the end of this unit, students should be able to:
• describe the purpose of genetic screening and testing
• give examples of diseases that are screened for and explain the need for these diseases to be tested
• outline the advantages and disadvantages of genetic screening and testing.
Understanding genetic testing in Australia
Information on the genetic screening and tests available in Australia as well as the ethical implications that need to be considered.
Oxford Science 10 resources
• Extend your understanding, page 31

Additional resources

Understanding genetic testing in Australia
http://www.genetics.edu.au/Genetic-conditions-support-groups/Understanding-Genetic-Testing
1.12 Genes can be manipulated
(pages 32–33)
Science Understanding
VCSSU119

Science as a human endeavour
VCSSU115
VCSSU116

Science Inquiry Skills
VCSIS140
By the end of this unit, students should be able to:
• define GMO and transgenic organisms
• give examples of different GMOs and explain the human need for these GMOs to be produced
• outline how a desirable gene can be inserted into a plant cell.
Create a transgenic organism:
Select different restriction enzymes to splice genes and plasmids to create transgenic organisms.
Oxford Science 10 resources
• Extend your understanding, page 33
1.13 Genetic engineering is used in medicine (pages 34–35)
Science Understanding
VCSSU119

Science as a human endeavour
VCSSU115
VCSSU116

Science Inquiry Skills
VCSIS135
VCSIS139
VCSIS140
By the end of this unit, students should be able to:
• define gene cloning and gene therapy
• outline the process of gene cloning.
• explain the purpose of using a microorganism to produce human proteins such as insulin.
• explain how gene therapy can be used for the treatment of medical conditions such as cystic fibrosis.
• describe the different types of stem cells and their uses in medicine.
• explain why the use of embryonic stem cells is controversial and the importance of producing induced pluripotent cells to medicine.
Challenge 1.13:
Edible genetic engineering
Students model how insulin can be genetically engineered.

Stem cell overview:
Covers stem cells – including types, their importance in medicine, how adult stem cells can become induced.
Oxford Science 10 resources
• Extend your understanding, page 35
• Challenge 1.13, page 188

Additional resources

Stem cell overview:
https://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics.htm
Review 1

(pages 36–37)
Science Understanding
VCSSU119

Science Inquiry Skills
VCSIS140
By the end of this unit, students should be able to:
• Define all Key Words listed on page 38
• Explain that ecosystem consist of interdependent abiotic and abiotic factors
• Explain how matter and energy flow through ecosystems
• Identify areas of personal strengths and weaknesses in their knowledge and understanding of the topic
Revision activities
• Students could play celebrity heads with the Key Words list
• Students can make dominoes with Key Words on one end and definitions/diagrams/examples on the other end
• Students can create mind maps, Venn diagrams or other graphic organisers to summarise the key concepts of this chapter
• Peer teaching: students can work in groups to reteach the content of the unit to the class for the purpose of revision. Each group could be allocated a double-page to summarise
Oxford Science 10 resources
• Review questions, pages 36–37
• Research topics, page 37
• Key Words list, page 38

Class Notes Genetics
1.2
chapter 1.3 DNA and RNA
chapter 1.4 Mitosis notes
Chapter 1.5 Meiosis notes

1.1 Structure of DNA
define DNA - Its a chemical that makes up genes and in turn forms chromosomes. The chemicals name is Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid.

• describe the structure of a nucleotide - A nucleotide is the essential unit that makes up DNA. Each nucleotide has three parts 1- Phosphate, 2. the sugar (deoxyribose), 3. the base.
While the sugar and base is identical on every nucleotide the bases can be one of four varieties.
THe four varieties are
1. Adenine
2. Thymine
3. Cytosine
4. Guanine


The DNA chain is held together by strong bonds (covalent bonds) between the sugar and phosphate of adjacent nucleotides - this forms the backbone of the chain. The Bases are joined to their complimentary base by Hydrogen Bonds- Because of the physical and chemical structure of these bases only

Adenine can combine with Thymine

and

Guanine can combine with Cytosine


We often write this as a short hand saying A-T and C-G.

This means that the string of bases that will make up a gene will consist of a 2 strands of combining bases.

This in turn makes up the double helix of the DNA

an example of the 2 strands of bases may look like this

CCTGATGGAATCGAT

GGACTACCTTAGCTA


Note how the base above each base follows the rule C combine with G and T combines with A


The overall structure of a strand of DNA is comprised of the bases that attach to a sugar molecule and this is atached to a phophate back bone and so looks like this. The P = Phosphate backbone

The S stands for sugar molecule

the coloured parts are the bases - see above for their names


Structure of DNA.jpeg
explain how nucleotides join to form a polynucleotide
• explain how complementary base pairs join
• explain the importance of DNA being able to make copies of itself and carry information.
Completed in the nots above

The nucleotide sequence makes a specific gene on the chromosomes . The sequence codes for a protein. We can say the sequence of nucleotides that form a gene stores information.

1.3 DNA and RNA
• compare the nucleic acids DNA and RNA
DNA is made of of nucleotides joined together to make a double helix. - nucleotide consists of Phosphate , sugar and a BASE. (A -T, C-G)
RNA - is made of nucleotides forming a thin strand where their base order depends on the base order of the DNA it is coding from ( this is TRANSCRIPTION) . The nucleotide consists of Phosphate, sugar and BASES (C - G, A - U) Uracil replaces Thymine in RNA. .

mRNA - transcription - this process happens in the nucleus when the DNA unzips allowing the mRNA to code against the unzipped portion of DNA. The mRNA then leaves the Nucleus and sits on the ribosome in the cytoplasm. Here tiny molecules of tRNA bring an amino acid and match their bases against the mRNA. This is the translation process. As the tRNA code against the mRNA the amino acids start to combine to make a long chain of their own. They are forming proteins. see p9 of text The proteins formed could be enzymes for digestion or hormones or structures that make up our organs.

1.4 Mitosis
• describe the purpose of mitosis and cytokinesis
The purpose of mitosis is to relocate the DNA (chromosomes) with in a cell and correctly send the chromosomes to each of the daughter cells created in the process. This means one cell has divided to become 2 cells that will then grow because they have the identical genetic make up as their parent cell.

• distinguish between diploid and haploid
Diploid is the total number of chromosomes in a cell. For example human cells diploid number is 46.
Haploid is the number of chromosomes in a sex cell (egg or sperm) in humans this is 23.

• describe the stages of mitosis
I
P
M
A
T
• explain how two diploid somatic cells are produced in mitosis-
See the stages above

• explain how and why a cell undergoes apoptosis.
When cells get too old to divide - or have significant errors they under go apoptosis - this means they die. Its been calculated for humans (with no other diseases) their cells will under go enough mitotic divisions for them to reach the age of approx 115 years old before total apoptosis

via GIPHY


via GIPHY



via GIPHY





1.5 Meiosis Notes
• describe the stages of meiosis I and II
• explain how four haploid gametes are produced in meiosis
• compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis.





















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Headstart work

Download these resources for your course

1. MGSC Yr 10 Genetics Outline - use this for headstart-
Below is the outline and some resources that will be useful.
2. genetic counselling resources -
http://prezi.com/uxfplprtbkxd/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy
3. Notes to genetics

1a.Genetics Key Terms.doc

2015 use this as a bare minimum to know for this topic - the table below has more resources


Go to the Class Notes






February work Year 10 Getting into Genes

Key Concepts



  1. DNA – role
  2. Genes and Chromosomes
  3. Patterns of Inheritance
  4. Ratios of genotypes & phenotypes
  5. Mutations
*NB (2.9 & 2.10 have been omitted – could be done as research tasks)
NAME:


Science Quest 10
TEXTBOOK
SCIENCE Quest 10 PRACTICALS / ACTIVITIES
SCIENCE Quest 10
HOMEWORK
OTHER ACTIVITIES/RESOURCES
Some revision
1
2.1 Patterns p 50 – 55 to class notes

DNA, Chromosomes, karyotyping
Inquiry Investigation 2.1: Working with DNA
Tour of the basics website: http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/tour/

See Mr Wallis’ wiki space: http://mrwallisscience.wikispaces.com/Yr+10+genetics many great web activities for each section
Understanding and Inquiry questions p54-55
Words to Learn
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid, genes, chromosomes, nucleus, mitosis, cell division, meiosis, gametes: ova & sperm, fertilisation, zygote, somatic cells, genotype, phenotype, environment, autosomes, homologous, non-homologous, sex chromosomes, karyotype telomere
Jigsaw puzzles

http://www.neok12.com/jigsaw-puzzles/Genetics.htm
2
2.2 Unlocking the genetic Code p 56 – 61

DNA coding, structure, copying, translation
Find an animation of protein synthesis and answer the questions below.

Use the jacplus site and complete the eBook Plus activity for q 14 and q 16
Find these in the weblinks of jacplus. Choose one other of your interest and write a paragraph about it.
Understanding and Inquiry questions p60-61
ques 1 to 9
Words to Learn
Nucleic acids, nucleotides, nitrogenous bases: Adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), guanine (G), base pairs, double helix, complimentary base pairs, triplet, amino acid, ribose, uracil, codon, messenger RNA (mRNA), transcription, ribosomes translated, transfer RNA (tRNA)
http://www.neok12.com/php/watch.php?v=zX57774078797d7564675a0a&t=Genetics

try this
http://quizlet.com/17424375/genetics-flash-cards/

or make your own here

Quizlet: Simple free learning tools for students and teachers

3
2.3 Who do you think you are? p 62 – 65

Human inheritance
http://www.latimes.com/features/health/la-he-sex19-2008may19,0,5686684.story
Understanding and Inquiry questions p64-65
Q 1, 4, 5
Words to Learn
Locus, genome, genomics, genome maps, epigenetics, gene sequencing
outline for analternative view of genetics course

http://www.neok12.com/Genetics.htm
4
2.4 Dividing to Multiply p 66 – 71

Cell division, variation, fertilisation, boy or girl, twins
Inquiry Investigation 2.2:What’s the chance

http://www.cosmosmagazine.com/node/1350
Understanding and Inquiry questions p70-71

Mitosis & meiosis interactivity (chapter resources) p71
Words to Learn
Asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction, diploid, haploid, variation, paternal chromosomes, maternal chromosomes, crossing over, haploid gamete, diploid zygote

5
2.5 The next Generation p 72 – 78

Genotype, phenotype, chances, passing on genes, dominance/recessive genes, Mendel
Inquiry Investigation 2.3:How does the environment affect phenotype
Inquiry Investigation 2.4: Genetics database

1. Inheritance of One Pair of Characteristics.doc

1a. Intro to Punnett Squares.docx

1b. Mendalian Genetics Definitions.docx

Here is an app you can download to learn how genes are passed on http://www.dnalc.org/resources/genescreen/
Understanding and Inquiry questions p77
Think and discuss questions p78

Making families interactivities-(Chapter resource p78)
Words to Learn
Inheritance, genetics, phenotype, genotype, alleles, homozygous, pure breeding, heterozygous, hybrid, homozygous dominant, homozygous recessive, carrier, codominance, incomplete dominance, partial dominance, monohybrid ratio

6
2.6 What are the Chances p 79 – 84

Predicting possibilities, punnet squares, pedigrees, sex-linked inheritance
http://www.dnaftb.org/

Mendels Pea expt - an interactive site
Understanding and Inquiry questions p82-84
Words to Learn
Punnett squares, X-linked trait, sex-linked inheritance, pedigree chart, codominant inheritance, autosomal inheritance

7
2.7 Changing the code p 85 – 88

Mutations,

Understanding and Inquiry questions p88
Words to Learn
Mutation, semi-conservative model, spontaneous mutation, induced mutation, mutagen, mutagenic agent, UVB radiation

8
2.8 Predicting with pedigree charts p 89 – 93

Examples of predicting inherited characteristics
extra genetic problems
Understanding and Inquiry questions p92-93
Research
Words to Learn
Autosomal recessive, X-linked recessive carrier




Revision
Activity 2.1: Revising Genetics
Activity 2.2: Investigating genetics
Activity 2.3: Investigating genetics further











Class Notes




Patterns order and organisation

1Sections of DNA make up a gene. A row of genes make up a chromosome.
There are 46 Chromosomes in every cell of a human (except for red blood cells - 0 and gametes -23)
The chromosomes are found in the nucleus of a cell.

There are 2 types of cell division
mitosis - this happens in all body cells as we grow - the cell division results in 2 identical cells with the same number of chromosomes.
meiosis - this happens in gonads (testis and ovaries) the result is 4 daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes as the parent. this means when gametes combine at fertilisation the resultant zygote has the correct number of chromosomes for its species. Human gametes have 23 chromosomes.

Gametes vs somatic cells
the difference.

Autosomes vs Sex chromosomes

Karyotypes
- this is a map of all the chromosomes in the body arranged in their pairs - ie 22 pairs of somatic or autosomal chromosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes

eg
Karyotype female.png
In this Karyotype you can see the 2 X chromosomes at the end.

DNA Structure

A strand of chromosome is made of DNA bases - There are 4 DNA bases
Cyrosine = C
Guanine = G
Adenine = A
Thymine = T

Because of the physical and chemical structure of these bases only
Adenine can combine with Thymine
and
Guanine can combine with Cytosine

We often write this as a short hand saying A-T and C-G.
This means that the string of bases that will make up a gene will consist of a 2 strands of combining bases.
This in turn makes up the double helix of the DNA
an example of the 2 strands of bases may look like this
CCTGATGGAATCGAT
GGACTACCTTAGCTA

Note how the base above each base follows the rule C combine with G and T combines with A

The overall structure of a strand of DNA is comprised of the bases that attach to a sugar molecule and this is atached to a phophate back bone and so looks like this. The P = Phosphate backbone
The S stands for sugar molecule
the coloured parts are the bases - see above for their names

Structure of DNA.jpeg

Protein Synthesis (extension work in 2015)

1. What does protein synthesis mean -
2 What happens when the DNA unzips-
3. What does the mRNA match up with on the DNA when it has unzipped -
4. Where does the mRNA go after it leaves the nucleus -
5. How does the tRNA know where to match up to the mRNA? -
6. What does the tRNA carry across to the mRNA? -
7. What is a chain of amino acids? -
8. Where does "transcription" occur? -
9. Where does "translation" occur? -
10. Copy the table on p59 that shows the DNA Triplet and corresponding mRNA codon and amino acid
answers

Who do you think you are

Genes determine the characteristics or traits we display. A gene is a segment of the double stranded DNA. The position a gene occupies on a chromosome is called the locus. Genes on the same chromosome are said to be linked.

Genomes

A total set of genes is called the genome. A genome map describes the order and spacing of the genes on each chromosome.

Your genes carry the information about your future. Some genes will only be activated in the right environmental conditions. Eg a certain pattern of genes is observed in all people with diabetes but they only get diabetes if their environment contains lots of sugar (ie they eat lots of sweets) . So in summary we can say that genetics loads the gun but the environment pulls the trigger. We cal the study this epigenetics.

Genes determine the characteristics or traits we display.
On what chromosomes do the genes for
hair colour reside - Chromosome 19 for gene HCL1 and Chromosome 15 HCL3
eye colour - Chromomsome 15 and 16 genes EYCL 1, EYCL 2, EYCL 3,
height Chromosome 8

What chromosomes are responsible for
klinfelters syndrome - an extra X chromosome
Downs Syndrome Trisomy 21 (3copies of chromosome 21)
This is about the human genome and shows how DNA replicates
Explore the video on how to sequence a genome

For more about the genome go here

Inheriting some characteristics**


2 genes combine to give us one of the traits that distinguish us from others. We have received one gene from our mother and the other from our father.
These 2 genes together are called alleles. One of them could be dominant while the other was recessive and this would result in dominant gene being expressed. For example If the gene for tongue rolling was dominant and we had one gene for the ability to roll our tongue and the other gene for the inability to roll tongues then we would be able to roll our tongue

Genetic Terms

recessive - a gene that is overpowered by the dominant gene, a phenotype that is rare in a population
dominant - a gene that over powers the recessive gene, more common phenotype in a population
co dominance - when neither gene is dominant and they both are express - eg black and white spotted cows
incomplete dominance- when both genes combine their power and express a new phenotype eg white and red make pink
sex linked - a trait that is carried on = the sex chromosomes - usually the X chromosome - eg haemaphilia, colour blindness - you should be able to write a punnett square for these.
Punnett square dominant and recessive.png

punnett square incomplete dominance.png
Eg of sex linked traits
punnett square sexlinked traits.png
The inheritance of your bloodtype is an example of codominance- this means each gene contributes to the phenotype.
punnett square blood type.pngPunnett square Bloodtype all types.jpeg


Multiple alleles

Some characterisitcs require more than one gene to assist in their expression. An example is blood type. See p 80 of the text book.

Mutations.

Errors in the DNA sequence can lead to variation in the genotype and phenotype. Some times the errors may lead to an improvement eg a long neck - handy if you are a giraffe. Other errors may cause harm eg cancer.

Mutations can occur as part of the
DNA replication,
Caused by mutagenics - eg chemicals, that trigger alterations to the DNA strand or radiation that alters the DNA strand. One example is sickle cell anaemia - see p 87 of the text.

Some mutations can lead to more chance of survival eg Bacteria and viruses mutate readily and this means their offspring inherit the mutated genes. If this mutation provides them protection from an antibiotic then th bacteria survives. You on the other hand get sick or stay sick.

try this close word passage


Pedigree charts

These show a family tree. they highlight the sex and the phenotype we are interested in tracking see p 899 of text.
Complete ques 11 and 13 p 92
Explore these sites and learn about the human pedigree - Once you have seen these sites answer the question below.
  1. A pedigree can be used to show who is married to who and who has a particular …………
  2. A pedigree is useful because…………
  3. Now watch the Queen Victoria animation below and check your answers to the questions above.
Animation to watch Queen Victoria animation

pedigree chart.png

Gene technolgy and cloning

Do a search for information about a film called "Boys from Brazil" and a film called "the Sixth Day"
How ia cloning part of the plot? - class discussion

Read and research information about Gene technology
from here: genetic engineering examine some of the posters and watch the animation

More advanced

information can be found here eg cloning and stem cells



More Genetics problems
5.1. Genetics Probs - Monohybrid Crosses.docx
5.2. Genetics Probs - Incomplete and Codominance.docx
5.2. Genetics Probs - Incomplete and Codominance.docx
5.3 Genetics Probs - Sex-linked Inheritance.docx
5.4 Genetics Probs - General Qs.docx
5.6 Genetics Probs - Blood Groups.docx
5.7 Genetics Probs - Pedigrees.docx
5.8 Genetics Probs - Advanced Probability.docx
5.9 Genetics Probs - Gene Linkage.docx
5.9 Genetics Probs - Gene Linkage.docx
5.9.1 Genetics Probs - Dihybrid Crosses.docx
5.9.2 Genetics Probs - Binonial and Chi Square.pdf





Answers
1. What does protein synthesis mean - To make proteins
2 What happens when the DNA unzips- the bases of mRNA matches up to the bases of DNA
3. What does the mRNA match up with on the DNA when it has unzipped - The complimentary bases match up but Uracil has replaced Thymine
4. Where does the mRNA go after it leaves the nucleus - goes out into the cytoplasm and sits on a ribosome.
5. How does the tRNA know where to match up to the mRNA? - Because they match up the bases in their complimentary pair
6. What does the tRNA carry across to the mRNA? - amino acids
7. What is a chain of amino acids? - Protein
8. Where does "transcription" occur? - in the Nucleus
9. Where does "translation" occur? - in the cytoplasm on the ribosome
10. Copy the table on p59 that shows the DNA Triplet and corresponding mRNA codon and amino acid





















2. Inheritance handouts

0. visit this site http://www.dnaftb.org/ (Do concept and animation of at least the first 5 - this explains the basic rules of genetics and explains how to set up punnet squares introduces heterozygus and homozygus etc - problem for number 5 is worth doing- this is required for the Rikki Lake prac)
1. Inheritance of One Pair of Characteristics.doc
1a. Intro to Punnett Squares.docx
1b. Mendalian Genetics Definitions.docx
2. Inheritance of Eye Colour in Drosophila.doc
2a. Expt . 2. Ability to Taste PTC (Continuous & Discontinuous Variation).doc
3. Comparing Traits.docx
4. Rikki Lake Genetics.doc


fireline_e0.gif





























This is old stuff don't do this

in Concept

Suggested activites

Must do all in RED

Extension or variation


4.1 Inheritance

Dominant/recessive, genes, locus, Mendel, chromosomes, haploid/diploid, mitosis/meiosis, gametes/somatic cells, genotype/phenotype, Punnett squares & expected ratios, codominance, incomplete dominance, heterozygous/homozygous
Possible activities:; Introduction to DNA & Chromosomes sheet, Rikki Lake genetics, Intro to Punnett squares worksheet, Genetics problems – monohybrid crosses
Websites: Genetics tour of the basics (http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/tour/) & worksheet; http://www.dnaftb.org/ (many animations, including how Punnett squares work)
Video: Mendel’s experiments with pea plants; mitosis video; meiosis video; meiosis animation
Homework book: Heterozygous and homozygous (p.61)
Questions: 1-23 (p137-138)
Genetics problems – dihybrid crosses
Genetics problems – advanced probability

Science at work activities p. 138
Modelling meiosis p. 139

4.2 Human Inheritance

Boy vs. girl, pedigrees, sex-linked inheritance
Explore these sites and learn about the human pedigree - Once you have seen these sites answer the question below.
  1. A pedigree can be used to show who is married to who and who has a particular …………
  2. A pedigree is useful because…………
  3. Now watch the Queen Victoria animation below and check your answers to the questions above.
Animation to watch Queen Victoria animation

Possible activities: People and Pedigrees investigation; Genetics problems – pedigrees, Genetics problems – sex-linked inheritance, Comparing traits worksheet (or p. 148)
5.1. Genetics Probs - Monohybrid Crosses.docx
Website: http://www.dnaftb.org/ (Pedigree animation)
Prac: vegetable people (p. 149)
8. Vegetable People.pdf
8a. Vegie People Pictures.docx
Video: Hand-Me-Down Genes (and worksheet); Reproduction and Genetics video 530 SPE (and worksheet)
Homework book: Pedigree analysis (p.62)
Questions: 1-24 (p146-147)

More on Pedigrees

5. Intro to Dihybrid Crosses.doc
6. Blood Types Worksheet.doc

9. Test Cross Theory.doc
Science at work activities p. 147
Blood groups
Continuous & discontinuous variation

Revision
Possible activities: Genetics revision board game; genetics revision worksheets
Homework book: Genetics crossword (p. 69); Sci-words (p. 70-71)
Questions: 1-18 (p170-171)


Quiz

Students who do not achieve 15/20 for their quiz will be required to sit a make-up quiz


Genetics Counseling Project (4-5 lessons needed)



Further Extension work

4.3 Chemical Code for Life
DNA, nitrogenous bases (adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine), sugar, phosphate
Prac: DNA extraction
Video: DNA structure
Homework book: Model DNA (p. 63-65)
Questions: 2-12, 14-21, 23 (p 154-155)


4.4 Controlling Inheritance
Selective breeding, genetic engineering, genetically modified, transgenic, gene probe, DNA fingerprinting, cloning, gene therapy, human genome
Possible activities: Controlling inheritance persuasive piece; Biotechnology debate; Controlling Inheritance PMI
Homework book: Human cloning (p. 67-8)
Questions: 1-20 (p163)



This is the task: Genetics Counseling Project

Copy the pdf to a USB disk or your laptop so you can print it later - here it is -Genetics Counselling Project pages 1 to 3.pdf
Things to be careful about -
  1. Follow the time line (see below) - there will be no extension of time as the rest of the class is counting on you to be finished when they are.
  2. Make sure you develop the support materials - as these will help you answer the questions of your clients on the counselling day. Support materials are explained fully in the pdf you have downloaded.
  3. Make sure you have talked with your team and have been assigned jobs that you can do.
  4. See the time line below

Period
Work to complete
1
Decide what to research & begin research
2
Research & develop support materials
3
Research & develop support materials
4
Research & develop support materials
5
Complete consultation

How your work will be graded

Closer to the presentation date the marking rubric will be available for you to look at and check you have done all the parts.

How to use the flip cameras

On the day of your presentation you will be expected to take video footage of the interview for your team. You will then need to edit the information down to a 5 minute video that would be suitable for the class to see.
By viewing this video they will get an understanding of the disease you studied and the way you explained and helped the couple you counselled. Some other useful tools

Gene technolgy and cloning

Do a search for information about a film called "Boys from Brazil" and a film called "the Sixth Day"
How ia cloning part of the plot? - class discussion

Read and research information about Gene technology
from here: genetic engineering examine some of the posters and watch the animation

More advanced

information can be found here eg cloning and stem cells
Prepare for a debate on genetechnology by reading this "Genetic engineering"

Genetic Counselling video


another video can be found here
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dJuo937gz44



Web tools for creating

1. web applications for schools - this provides a long index of useful tools. here are some you might like to use
2. more web applications web 2.0 guru - another extensive list of tools - browse this if you are looking for a special tool.

Go to the survey











to make a comment on this task!!
do the test again

More Genetics problems

5.1. Genetics Probs - Monohybrid Crosses.docx
5.2. Genetics Probs - Incomplete and Codominance.docx
5.2. Genetics Probs - Incomplete and Codominance.docx
5.3 Genetics Probs - Sex-linked Inheritance.docx
5.4 Genetics Probs - General Qs.docx
5.6 Genetics Probs - Blood Groups.docx
5.7 Genetics Probs - Pedigrees.docx
5.8 Genetics Probs - Advanced Probability.docx
5.9 Genetics Probs - Gene Linkage.docx
5.9 Genetics Probs - Gene Linkage.docx
5.9.1 Genetics Probs - Dihybrid Crosses.docx
5.9.2 Genetics Probs - Binonial and Chi Square.pdf









Did you get less than 75% in the test?

Here is an online test for you to do - you can keep doing it until you get more than 75%

When you log on to the test you will need this access code

AJ6P3U


Enter your first name in the field provided
in the surname field enter 10D then your surname the results should look like this

Sarah
10D Furlonger

To do the test go Here












Other genetics links go here

So how could you use the netbooks?



Useful genetic sites – with some great virtual labs

http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/

Labeling activities:

http://www.neok12.com/diagram/Genetics-01.htm


List of genetic videos:

http://www.neok12.com/Genetics.htm

Online genetics games:

http://nature.ca/genome/04/041/041_e.cfm

Interactive learning tools:

http://www.dnai.org/index.htm


Possible topics to spark interest in genetics:

Genetics of mate attraction:

http://www.cosmosmagazine.com/node/1350

http://www.latimes.com/features/health/la-he-sex19-2008may19,0,5686684.story

Please add to this list and pass on to others…















Try this first- background

This is about the human genome and shows how DNA replicates
Explore the video on how to sequence a genome

For more about the genome go here

Explore these sites and learn about the human pedigree - Once you have seen these sites answer the question below.
  1. A pedigree can be used to show who is married to who and who has a particular …………
  2. A pedigree is useful because…………
  3. Now watch the Queen Victoria animation below and check your answers to the questions above.
Animation to watch Queen Victoria animation

Discussion

How would society change if we had to present our pedigree before we could have kids? make a comment below.
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More advanced

information can be found here eg cloning and stem cells