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Year 8 TRANSFERRING AND TRANSFORMING ENERGY Chapter 10
Key Concepts


  1. 1. Kinetic Energy
  2. 2. Potential Energy
  3. 3. Different forms of energy and their effect
  4. 4. Transfer of energy
  5. 5. Heat energy as a by-product
  6. 6. Changes between different forms of energy
NAME:

Science Quest 8
TEXTBOOK
SCIENCE Quest 8 PRACTICALS / ACTIVITIES
SCIENCE Quest 8
HOMEWORK
OTHER ACTIVITIES/RESOURCES
1
10 Transferring and transforming energy
page 307
Your Quest
Potential energy and kinetic energy

Words to Learn
Potential and kinetic energy
2
10.1 Matter and energy: Making things happen
page 308
eLessons
Energy in disguise
Did you know that all energy is constantly being transformed and transferred from one object to another? There’s more going on in your world than meets the eye. eles-0063

Energy experiments: from STELR workbook; jumping jacks, cotton reel cars etc. Efficiency of bouncing balls.
Questions: p312
1-5, 7,11
Interactivity
Use the Coaster interactivity in your eBookPLUS to identify the positions on a roller coaster rider where the car has more kinetic energy and where it has more gravitational potential energy.

int-0226
Australian International Model Solar Challenge
Learn about the exciting annual event where Australian high school students compete by building and racing model cars and boats.

eles-0068
Words to Learn
Gravitational, electrical and chemical energy. Energy efficiency

INVESTIGATION: Qs 18 p 312
3
10.2 Hot moves
page 313
INQUIRY: INVESTIGATION 10.1
‘Moving Particles’ p328
Questions: p316
1-6
InvestigateQ 9 or 10 page 316
Words to Learn
Conduction, convection, radiant heat
4
10.3 A costly escape
page 317

Science as a human endeavour
INQUIRY: INVESTIGATION 10.2
Investigating insulators p318
Questions: p318
1-3, 6, 7
TASK: Find 5 ways that you reduce the loss of energy in your house and 5 ways that energy is lost at home.
HW worksheet
10.3 A costly escape
Words to Learn
insulation
5
10.4 Light energy
page 319
INQUIRY: INVESTIGATION 10.3
Observing a radiometer p320
INQUIRY: INVESTIGATION 10.4
Seeing the light p321
Questions: p321
1-7, 10
InvestigateQ 11
page 321


HW worksheet
10.4 Light energy
Words to Learn
Transmitted, absorbed, reflected, luminous, incandescent, bio-luminescent, scattered.
6
10.5 Sound energy
page 322
INQUIRY: INVESTIGATION 10.5
Modelling sound waves p322
INQUIRY: INVESTIGATION 10.6
Vibrations and pitch p324
INQUIRY: INVESTIGATION 10.7
Making it louder p325
Questions: p326 Qs1-5
Create and explain;
Q14 p326
Words to Learn
Vibration, compression ,rarefaction, sound waves, pitch, reverberations
7
Revision and Test

10.5 Energy: Puzzles
Looking back
page 328



Revision questions





What is energy
energy is the ability to do work.
Work in science means making something happen. E.g. move, pull or push, heat up or cool down.
Energy comes in a variety of forms. But energy can not be created nor destroyed. It does however, change form.

The different forms of energy are;
sound, light, electrical, chemical, gravitational, nuclear, kinetic, and thermal or heat
There are also potential energies like gravitational potentional energy, chemical P.E. Elastic P.E


some toys as examples
the popper
kinetic (me turning it inside out) to elastic potential E. To kinetic ( once it pops and flies up) to gravitational PE ( when it stops at the top of the flight) to kinetic E ( when it starts to fall back down)

cotton reel racer the energy transformation pathway is
kinetic E turned the stick and made the elastic band tighter, this is elastic P E. When we let the stick go the elastic PE was converted to kinetic E.

Energy Transformations

Energy can neither be created nor destroyed but it can be changed from one from to another.

For example in the case of a solar panel supplying electricity to run a TV we have the following transformations:
Heat and light E (from the sun) -------> electrical E (converted by the solar panel)-------> Light, Sound and Heat E (in the TV showing a movie)

Drawing Energy transformations

eg 1 electrical e to light e draw the flow chart for each. Of these examples
eg 2 iPod battery to music
eg3 person kicking a ball that bounces along the ground.

Energy Transfer

Convection expt

Aim

to draw a convection current

Method

1 set up equipment as shown
2. gently heat
3. add 1 crystal of potassium permanganate to the centre of the beaker using a straw.
4. Draw the convection current in your results

Results





Conclusion




Light energy

5 sources of light energy are;
sun, stars, torch, fire, light bulb these are incandescent - they are hot and glow brightly
A firefly - glows because of bio luminescence
A glow stick glows because of - chemo luminescence
the moon shines because it reflects light from the sun.
An LED - light emitting diode glows because of electron exciting
A fluorescent light glows because the gas in the tube is excited to give off light energy

Light experiment
Measure the strength of the light emitted by using a light meter
Voltage
Lux
2

4

6

8

10

12



Set the voltage to 8

Colour of paper
Lux
Yellow

red

orange

blue

white

green

other



The radiometer
This is a vaccuum filled glass ball with a tuny paddle wheel inside - one side is of each paddle is white while the other side is black.
The wheel does not turn in the dark but it does turn in the sunlight. Why is this so???



Radiometer.IMG_1915.JPG
How the radiometer works
http://science.howstuffworks.com/question239.htm

Light energy can travel as a wave. And these waves can be reflected or bent (refracted) or scattered to demonstrate a number of effects. Reflection is what you see in a mirror, Refraction is when you look at a stick or pencil in water and the pencil or stick appears bent.

Incandescent bulbs heat up so much that they glow bright. Alot of their energy is changed to heat ( which we probably did not want ) while the rest is light energy - (the form we did want)

Sound Energy

Sound energy travels in waves. We can here sound because the energy is passed from one air particle to the next. Sound waves travel in compression waves.
Sound can not travel in a vacuum because there are no particles to transfer the sound energy

unavoidable loss of energy

when e is transformed from one form to another it does not all end up inthe form we may want. Have a look at eg 2 above. Electrical E was transformed into light, heat and sound even though we really only wanted the music.

Efficiency

This is a measure of the fraction of energy available that is transformed into the type of energy we want. Eg of the 100% of the electricity that goes into an electric light about 90% is transformed into heat and only 10% is transformed into light.

The rollercoaster game

http://rollercoastergamesonline.com/roller-coaster-games/digital-labs-coaster-creator

Types of waves

Energy travels in waves.
There are 2 types of waves we use to describe sound

1. transverse waves are like the waves on water or at the beach.



Energy Transverse_wave.png
Energy Transverse_wave.png


2. compressional waves are like the waves in a compressed slinky. Sound Energy travels by this wave.
Energy compression wave Molecule4.gif
Energy compression wave Molecule4.gif




Transverse waves----Light travels in a transverse wave. A transverse wave is similar to the waves at the beach (that have not broken) or like ripples on a pond. We can make this type of wave by shaking a slinky from side to side.

Longitudinal Waves. These are sometimes called compressional waves. Sound travels in compressional waves. They look like this
For sound to be transferred from one place to our ear there must be particles that can carry the sound. This is why sound does not travel in a vacuum.

Watch the movie of an iphone inside a guitar and watch the shape of the strings change as they vibrate to produce different notes.

https://www.google.com.au/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=video&cd=2&ved=0CB4QtwIwAWoVChMIkaLWi5iHyQIVweOmCh3g4g9i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.youtube.com%2Fwatch%3Fv%3DINqfM1kdfUc&usg=AFQjCNE2viX5KUd8pfxq-8Wg_yTTzsNYUg


iphone in a guitar images.jpeg


making a musical instrument
use strings rubber bands [aper etc to make an instrument that can play 4 distinct notes


Revision questions Transforming Energy
  1. Where would you find examples of
  • Chemical energy
  • Potential chemical energy
  • nuclear energy
  • Light energy
  • Heat energy
  • elastic energy
  • gravitational potential energy
  • kinetic energy
2. For each of the above give an example of when it might be transformed and what E type it might be transformed into
3.Energy efficiency of a ball being dropped from 1m and bouncing back 30 cm is
4 How does house insulation effect
convection
conduction
radiation
5. Draw a convection current found in water as its being heated
6. Draw an energy transformation flow diagram for each of the following
a) an ipod being turned on to listen to music
b) a wind up toy being wound up and then being let go to run across the floor
7. For each example in question 6 list some of the unwanted energies


Answers
  1. Where would you find examples of
  • Chemical energy --- coal batteries food
  • Potential chemical energy ---petrol ,coal, batteries, food,
  • nuclear energy ---bomb, powerplant, SUN
  • Light energy --sun, light bulbs
  • Heat energy - sun, fire
  • elastic energy---- elastic band,
  • gravitational potential energy, rock on the edge of a cliff, water held in a dam
  • kinetic energy --- moving body,

2. For each of the above give an example of when it might be transformed and what E type it might be transformed into
  • Chemical energy ---burn wood this transforms into heat
  • Potential chemical energy ---Food is digested and this provides Energy to move
  • nuclear energy --->Heat
  • Light energy -->Electrical E ( solar panels)
  • Heat energy --->Kinetic E ( heating air - hot air rises)
  • elastic energy---->Kinetic E ( sling shot)
  • gravitational potential energy, water held in a dam -----> Electrical energy ( hydro Electric power)
  • kinetic energy --- moving air - transformed into Electric Energy, (wind generator

3.Energy efficiency of a ball being dropped from 1m and bouncing back 30 cm is
30/100 = 30%

4 How does house insulation effect (reduce)
  • convection - forms a layer of trapped air to prevent conction
  • conduction - it does not conduct heat ( it is a poor conductor of heat)
  • radiation - reflects heat away from the room

5. Draw a convection current found in water as its being heated

6. Draw an energy transformation flow diagram for each of the following
a) an ipod being turned on to listen to music
Stored chemical E in the battery --->Electrical E ----> Sound E (+ Light E)

b) a wind up toy being wound up and then being let go to run across the floor
Kinetic E ( to wind up the toy) ------> stored as elastic potential E ------> kinetic E (+Heat E + sound E)

7. For each example in question 6 list some of the unwanted energies