Year. Sedimentary, Igneous & Metamorphic Rocks

Key Concepts


  1. 1. Patterns, order and organisation
  2. 2. Form and function
  3. 3. Stability and change
  4. 4. Scale and measurement
  5. 5. Matter and energy
  6. 6. Systems
NAME:

Staff should aim to complete a dot point per lesson so that the topic runs for 4 weeks

Science Quest
TEXTBOOK
SCIENCE Quest PRACTICALS / ACTIVITIES
SCIENCE Quest
HOMEWORK
OTHER ACTIVITIES/RESOURCES
1
9.1 Rocks and Minerals
Inquiry: Investigation 9.1 (Which mineral is it?)
Atlantis: the evidence a movie about history archeology and geology
P279 Understanding and Inquiring questions
Worksheet 9.1

A brief introduction to minerals.

https://youtu.be/8a7p1NFn64s

Identifying minerals
https://youtu.be/32NG9aeZ7_c
Words to Learn
Lithosphere, magma, sediments, minerals, native elements, crystals, lustre, streak, hardness
2
9.2 Hot Rocks

Make non working model of volcano using cardboard, cellophane, + +
e-lesson –Volcanoes (eles-0130)
Inquiry investigation 9.2 (Does fast cooling make a difference?)
eBook plus- (weblinks section)Who am I rock game – question 10 investigate
Rock cycle animation-weblinks
p282 Understanding and Inquiring questions
Worksheet 9.2

Igneous rocks
https://youtu.be/aCnAF1Opt8M
Words to Learn
igneous rocks, extrusive rocks, pumice, scoria, abrasive, basalt, obsidian, intrusive rocks, batholiths, Granite
3
9.3 Sedimentary Rocks
Inquiry: Investigation 9.3 (Sediments and water)
Inquiry: Investigation 9.4(Identifying sedimentary rocks)

fossils

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glossopteris
P289 Understanding and Inquiring questions
Worksheets 9.3
Sedimentary rocks

https://youtu.be/Etu9BWbuDlY
Words to Learn
Sedimentary rocks, floodplains, glaciers, moraines, sandstone, mudstone, shale, siltstone, conglomerate, limestone, coal, rock salt.
4
9.4 Stability and change:
Metamorphic rocks

Crayon Rock cycle (see pdf)
Inquiry: Investigation 9.5 (Rocks- the new generation)
Interactive int-0234

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wv4M4wror58

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=53lMdHzvGCQ

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=53lMdHzvGCQ
P290 Understanding and Inquiring questions
Worksheets 9.4
Worksheets 9.5

more metamorphic videos
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1oQ1J0w3x0o

metamorphic rocks
https://youtu.be/1oQ1J0w3x0o
Words to Learn
Metamorphism, metamorphic rocks, slate, shale, marble, gneiss,
5
9.5 Mining for Metals

Froth Flotation using dirt, straw and detergent.
Inquiry: Investigation 9.6 (Searching without disturbing)


P293 Understanding and Inquiring questions

Rock Cycle animation

http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/investigations/es0602/es0602page02.cfm
Words to Learn
Mineral ores, mining, environmental impact statement (EIS), rehabilitated, overburden, open-cut mining, underground mining,
6
9.6 Stone technology
(Time dependent)

P295 Understanding and Enquiry questions
Words to Learn
Stone age, alloy, flint, percussion flaking
7
9.7 Every rock tells a story
Interactive-0233
Weblinks ebookplus see p313 rhs
Worksheet 9.6


P300 Understanding and Inquiring questions
Words to Learn
Palaeontologists, relative age, mould, trace fossils, extinct,
8
9.8 Questioning and predicting

P302 Understanding and Inquiring questions




Class Notes


Igneous rocks

Have been formed fro molten material. Some are spewed out of volcanoes. These are caled extrusive rocks. They have very small crystals eg BASALT. Some have tiny holes where gas was trapped eg PUMICE.

Rocks that are formed underground are called intrusive rocks ( or Plutonic rocks) They have large crystals that might have cooled over 100s of years . An example is GRANITE

Crystals experiment
Aim: Investigate the cooling rate and crystal size
Hypothesis: The faste a solution cools the smaller the crystals
Method
Make an alum solution by half fillinfg a test tube with alum crystal and covering with water
heat gently
when dissolved halve the solution betwee 2 testubes
put one in ice and the other in air
add a half spatula of alum to each solution
Observe





Complete the igneous rocks worksheet


Crystal size -


Examples of small crystal rock is basalt and rhyolite

Examples of large crystal rock is granite


Making crystal experiment is a good explanation for the cooling of molten rock because it shows how the different temperatures can lead to big crystal (slow cooling) and small crystals (fast cooling)
Hmwk Questions
p 296 q 1, 3, 5, and 8

Sedimentary rocks

complete the ques p 299 ques 1 to 5
Complete the sedimentary rock work sheet

Metamorphic rocks

complete ques p 302 q 1 to 8
Complete the metamorphic rock work sheet
There are 2 ways metamorphic rocks can be formed and that is by contact metamorphism and regional metamorphism.

Contact metamorphism occurs when igneous rock touch a sedimentary rock and the heat of the igneous rock partially melts the sedimentary rock. This high heat could cause it to change into slate, quartzite or marble. Regional metamorphism applies heat and pressure over a wide distance - many kilometres. And this pressure causes the temperature of the rocks to rise and metamorphosis begins.

Often both contact and regional metamorphosis happens at the same time. Depending on how close the sedimentary rock is to the source of heat or pressure we get different sedimentary rocks.

Shale ---->slate----->schist------>gneiss
no heat some h+p lots h+p masses of heat and pressure

The rock cycle -

Complete the rock cycle work sheet

Whats in a rock?

When you see a rock with different colours you can guess it is made from different chemical compounds. These compounds form crystals and grains we see in the igneous and sedimentary rocks. These compounds that make up crystals give the crystals their special shape and colour. Its the reason why amethyst is purple and diamonds are clear. But you can get red diamonds and pink diamonds and yellow diamonds. The main element in a diamond is carbon. When a diamond is not clear the diamond might be infected with a small amount of another element like iron - which might give the pink colour.

These different coloured compounds have different properties. They include hardness, lustre and streak colour and crystal shape.
  • Hardness is determined by seeing what can scratch the mineral and then positioning it on Moh's Hardness scale- we will do this in an expt.
  • Lustre refers to how shiny the mineral is. It may range from vitreous (very shiny) to waxy or dull.
  • Streak is the colour of the line that is left when a mineral is scratched across the back of a white tile.
  • crystal shape is often measured in angles or describes the cleavage of the crystal. Cleavage is a term that describes the way (or direction) a rock will break. For example calcite general breaks in little cubes. So we describe its cleavage as being in three directions at about 90 degrees.
These compounds are called minerals when we are talking about rocks.

Compounds = Minerals ---------> crystals or grains --------------> rock

Exercise - Finding the characteristics of minerals in rocks

Identifying minerals

1. Two common rocks are composed of the minerals shown in the images at right. Limestone contains calcite, and sandstone contains quartz.


Calcite
Quartz
The following table provides information about the properties of these minerals.
Mineral
Colour
Streak (colour of powdered mineral)
Hardness
Lustre
Calcite
Colourless, white
White
3
Dull to vitreous
Quartz
Colourless, purple, red, yellow
White
7
Vitreous
Biotite mica
Black
brown
2
shiny vitreous
Feldspar (orthoclase or plagioclase)
white, pink,
white
5-6
waxy or vitreous shiny
Galena
black grey crystals
grey
6
shiny
Gypsum
white (pink)
white
2
dull

Mineral observations

Mineral

Gypsum

Calcite

Orthoclaise Feldspar

Apatite

Quartz

Corrundum_

Colour
clear
orange
green (amazonite)
brown
pink
cream and brown
Texture
smooth
waxy
smooth and rough
smooth
rough and waxy
rough
Lustre
shiny vitreous
shiny
dull /shiny on cut surfaces
glossy
shiny
dull
Crystal shape
flat
unclear
unclear
irregular hexagon
unclear
cylindrical to a point/ 6 sided at times
Hardness
2
3
6
5
7
9
Streak
white
white


white
white maybe very hard



Research task Mining

Choose an ore that is mined for its commercial value - eg bauxite for aluminium
make a mini poster that will show
1. what the ore looks like as it is mined
2. what is the mining process
3. how the valuable element is separated form the ore - a picture would be good here
4. what the final product looks like
5. places this element is used

Here is an example that addresses point 1, 4, and 5
IMG_1988.JPG


Research 3 mining companies from the list below (choose one from each group)
BHP, Santos, Woodside,RIO Tinto
Fortescue, , Lehir, Oz minerals
Mt Gibson, Illuka, Atlas mines
,
  1. Name the company, what is its value (in dollars) what is its share price
  2. find out what the company mines and where.
  3. Find out if the local people like the mining being there and if they do (or don't) why
  4. Find out what happens to the minerals that are mined
  5. How are they extracted from the ore - what sort of pollution has to be taken into account.


9.5 Mining for metals

We mine for metals and precious stones in the Earth’s crust. This includes above ground under water and deep under ground.
Metals are rarely found in lumps (the exceptions are gold and silver which are unreactive) most metallic elements have reacted with some oxygen and silicon making a compound. This is the ore. To extract the metallic element from the compound ore we have to
a) mine the ore by removing the overburden and topsoil
b) use extraction techniques like - crushing, grinding and washing the rock to remove minerals from the unwanted rock. Metal extraction to obtain metal element from mineral involves chemical reactions, which depends on the chemical composition of the mineral ore.



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The galapagos video
Watch the "Born of Fire" chapter of the Galapagos movie and write a paragraph to explain how the rock cycle is evident on the Galapagos islands.