Survival
Class Notes Survival

Student book section
VIC Syllabus links
Suggested indicators of learning and understanding
Suggested teaching and learning activities
Resources
7.1 Systems are made up of cells, tissues and organs

(pages 128–129)
Science Understanding
VCSSU094

Science as a Human Endeavour
VCSSU089

Science Inquiry Skills
VCSIS110
VCSIS113
By the end of this unit, students should be able to:
• define tissue, organ, body system and anatomy
• describe the relationship between cells, tissues, organs and body systems
• provide examples of body systems and the main organs they involve.
What if?
Students investigate the responses of their own body to exercise.

Challenge 7.1
Brown paper body brainstorm
Students draw all the organs they can think of inside a human body outline and develop a colour coding system to indicate organs systems.
Oxford Science 8 Victorian Curriculum resources
• What if? Page 127
• Check your learning, page 129
• Challenge 7.1, page 222
7.2 The digestive system is made up of organs

(pages 130–131)
Science Understanding
VCSSU094

Science Inquiry Skills
VCSIS107
VCSIS108
VCSIS109
VCSIS110
VCSIS112
VCSIS111
VCSIS113
By the end of this unit, students should be able to:
• define digestion, peristalsis, chyme and villi
• describe the differences between chemical and physical digestion
• list the main organs of the digestive system
• explain the function of the digestive system
• relate the structure of villi to their function.
Experiment 7.2A
Digesting protein
Students investigate the function of pepsin as a digestive enzyme and determine the optimal conditions for its action.

Experiment 7.2B (Possible Demo ?)
What if an enzyme was boiled?
Students investigate the effect of boiling and other treatments on the action of enzymes using pineapple to dissolve jelly.

Digestive system in action
Students can consolidate their understanding of the structure and function of the digestive system using the John Kitses animated digestive system.
Oxford Science 8 Victorian Curriculum resources
• Check your learning, page 131
• Experiment 7.2A, page 223
• Experiment 7.2B, page 224
Additional resources
John Kitses interactive, animated digestive system:
http://kitses.com/animation/digestion.html
7.3 The digestive system varies between animals

(pages 132–133)
Science Understanding
VCSSU094

Science Inquiry Skills
VCSIS113
By the end of this unit, students should be able to:
• define caecum, rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum
• describe why there are differences in the digestive systems of different animals
• relate the structure of teeth to their function
• relate the structure of organs in the digestive system to their function.
Comparative digestion
Students can investigate the differences between herbivore and carnivore digestive system by reading the information on the VetSci website.
Oxford Science 8 Victorian Curriculum resources
• Check your learning, page 133
Additional resources
VetSci Comparative digestion:
http://vetsci.co.uk/2010/05/14/comparative-digestion/
7.4 Things sometimes go wrong in the digestive system

(pages 134–135)
Science Understanding
VCSSU094

Science as a Human Endeavour
VCSSU089

Science Inquiry Skills
VCSIS113
By the end of this unit, students should be able to:
• define ulcers, gallstones, gluten intolerance, constipation, diarrhoea and ultrasound
• describe some common malfunctions of the digestive system and the diseases or conditions they lead to.
Investigating digestive problems
Students can choose one of the problems associated with digestion from this section, or another to investigate. In pairs or small groups, they can present their information as a poster, verbal presentation or another form.
Oxford Science 8 Victorian Curriculum resources
• Extend your understanding, page 135


Class notes
Class Notes Survival
7.2

• definitions

  1. digestion, This is means food is broken down into very tiny molecules to be absorbed through our intestine into the blood.
  2. - Physical or mechanical Digestion- -This is chewing the food and churning the food in the stomach
  3. -Chemical digestion -is where the food is broken into tiny molecules by a chemical reaction eg enzymes or acid.
  4. peristalsis- this is the action of muscles in the digestive system contracting to push food along the digestive tubes
  5. chyme - is the mixture of acid, enzymes and partially digested food
  6. villi - Small ridges found in the small intestine that absorbs food. These ridges increase the surface area and make absorption faster.


• list the main organs of the digestive system
• explain the function of the digestive system
• relate the structure of villi to their function.





What's in a boneBones are alive - they mend after a break. They contain collagen - that helps them flex and minerals (calcium, phosphorous that ossifies the bone) and makes them hard and brittle. We need bones to give us shape and provide support


Joints.Bones are held together by strong flexible tissue called ligaments. A joint has slippery fluid called synovial fluid between the bones and cartilage that caps each end of the bone. The cartilage and the synovial fluid keeps the joints lubricated.
Some special joints are
a. hinge joints like in your elbow
b. ball and socket joints like in your hip
c. pivot joints like in your neck
d. and fixed joints that do not move - like in your skull.

Page 141 chapter 2.10 -draw examples of each joint
The SkeletonUse chapter 4.10 to make some notes
Learn the main bones of the human body
The 3 main moveable joints are - hinge--eg elbow, ball and socket eg shoulder and pivot eg neck and skull
bones are held together by the ligaments
inside a joint there is synovial fluid that acts a a lubricant along with the cartilage that caps the bone.
How do we move?Muscles need skeletons to help us move.
At the end of each muscle is some slippery, silvery, very tough tissue that grows out of the muscle and joins onto a bone - the tendon (achilles tendon)
when a muscle contracts the tendons pull on the bone bringing the bones closer together.

There are 3 main types of muscles - cardiac, skeletal and smooth.
Smooth muscles are found in the intestine -these muscles contract in 2 directions - and squeeze food along the tube
skeletal muscles found on the arm and leg - Extensor and flexor muscles work opposing each other - eg in the arm . When one stretches the other contracts and when one contracts the other one stretches .
cardiac muscle - found in the heart, these muscles contracts in 3 directions and squeeze blood out of the heart chambers.


Digestive system4.3 Break it down &

Digestive systems

http://kidshealth.org/misc/movie/bodybasics/digestive_system.html

Use this link above to learn the parts of the digestive system and what their function is.
How digestion worksFood is necessary to keep our bodies supplied with energy. It is also required so our bodies can replace old cells and grow.

For food to get into our blood stream it first must be broken down
1. mechanically by our teeth
2. Chemically by the enzymes (see p 98) and acids in our stomach.

The food goes from being a lump to individual molecules that can pass from our small intestine through the villi into the blood stream.

The role of the stomachThe stomach churns the food that has come down to it via the oesophagus. In the stomach digestion occurs because acid is added as well as some enzymes. The stomach churning completes the crushing of food to form chyme. A gooey mass of blended food.

The main role of the stomach is to break down proteins. The stomach contains a very strong acid HCl at a high concentration (pH 2). The stomach is lined with mucous that prevents the stomach cells being disolved.

The role of the small intestineGlucose (broken down Carbohydrates), amino acids (broken down proteins) and fatty acids (broken down fats and oils) as well as some water is absorbed in the small intestine. To speed up the absorption the inside of the small intestine is covered in tiny little finger like projections called VILLI . We say the villi increases the surface area of the small intestine to speed up the absorption of nutrients.


EnzymesMake a simplified diagram of the enzyme diagram on page 98 to explain how enzymes work.

Enzymes are chemicals that assist the chemical digestion. An enzyme acts like a pair of ssissors cutting the food molecules into little bits.

Each food has its own special enzyme to break it down and these enzymes are released from glands through out the digestive system.


Examples of enzymesAmylases break down Complex Carbohydrates (like starch) into simpler carbohydrates
Proteases breakdown Proteins (like meat) into simpler proteins
Liapses breakdown Fats and oils (like butter) into lipids

Here are some specific examples of enzymes
  • Lactase breaks down lactose

  • Maltase breaks down maltose

  • protease breaks down proteins
Inv. 4.3 Does temperature affect enzymes
Does Temperature affect enzyme functionAim to investigate the effect of temperature on enzyme function
Hypothesis -----you fill in
Method
1. 3 beakers of 100mLs of water
2. beaker 1 cold tap water, beaker 2, water from the hot water tap about 40 deg C , beaker 3 very hot water (about 80 - 90 degrees C) Safety note
3. to beaker 1 add 1 testube with 20mLs of milk and one testube with 20 mLs of milk and tiny teaspoon of rennin
4. observe and record observation in table, each minute for 5 minutes
5 repeat steps 3 and 4 for beaker 2 and beaker 3

Results
you draw up the tables

Discussion
experimental errors include
My independent variable was
My dependent variable was

Conclusion
My hypothesis was / was not supported by the results.
I found that..


The Villi

These look like thousands of fingers that wave inside our small intestine. They have the effect of increasing the surface area of the small intestine making it have more places for the nutrients to diffuse into the blood system.




BileThis is like a detergent that can emulsify fat (this means turn fat into very tiny droplets)
This is how the fat gets small enough to get into your blood stream.

Blood highwaysBlood is composed of
  1. Red Blood Cells - that contain haemaglobin and carry oxygen molecules to the cells for respiration
  2. White blood cells - that fight infection by engulfing the foreign body
  3. Platelets - that can block little cuts
  4. Plasma - a yellow fluid mainly made of water and dissolved minerals and nutrients and hormones

Blood travels in special tubes
Blood is pumped by the heart. Blood flows away from the heart in arteries. Arteries have thick muscular walls (pulse). They can squeeze the blood at a regular pulse similar to your heart beat. Arteries become finer and finer as they travel through your body until they become capillaries - the finest of all tubes. The capillaries may only be 2 or 3 cells in diameter and at this size the oxygen and nutrients leave the blood and enter the cells. The waste that was in the cells now move into the capillaries. As the capillaries get bigger in diameter they become narrow veins. Veins carry blood back to the heart under low pressure (no pulse). Veins have special cups inside them called valves that stop the blood flowing backward (or pooling in your feet due to gravity)





4.7 Sucked in & blown out &
Cells need energy. They get energy from burning glucose in oxygen inside the cell. The cell gets glucose from digestion but it gets the oxygen from the lungs. Remember the red blood cells carry this oxygen to cells.



This process of burning glucose in oxygen produces waste carbon dioxide and water. WE call this scientific process RESPIRATION or Cellular respiration.



The lungs are 2 large sacs containing millions of tiny sacs called alveoli. Each alveoli is surrounded by tiny capillaries. It is here that oxygen can diffuse from the alveoli into the capillary. Excess carbon dioxide and some water diffuse from the blood back into the alveoli. We breathe these wastes out when we exhale.



Air gets into the lungs when the diaphragm flattens out (contracts). This creates a negative pressure in the lungs and air rushes up your nose, down larynx, past the voice box, through the trachea (a ribbed cartilage surrounded tube) into the bronchioles and down ever finer tubes to the alveoli.



To get the air out we relax our diaphragm. This then arches up and pushes the air out of the lungs. Muscles between our ribs also contract to squeeze the lungs.



Copy the diagram of the alveolus and how the oxygen gets into the capillaries and how carbon dioxide gets out. page 124



Complete questions in the guide sheet.



Asthma is _

The bronchioles

Anaphylaxis is _



Breathing trachea epiglottis bronchioles alveoli diaphragm asthma anaphylaxis


4.9 ExcretionExcretion is the term for the removal of waste products by the body. (This is not poo)
The most common form of waste made by the body is urea which is excreted by the kidney and carbon dioxide wexcreted by the lungs. The excretory system also manages our water balance.

Blood is filtered by the kidneys to return good things to the blood and take out urea and excess water. The urea is mixed with some water in the kidney and this forms urine. Urine travels down the ureter to the bladder where it is stored. The bladder empties through the urethra. This emptying process is called urination.

Parts of the kidney.
The kidney is made of lots of very fine tubules, arteries and veins. Together we call them nephrons. All the filtering of the blood happens in the bowmans capsule.
Reabsorbtion of water occurs in the loop of Henley

Draw this structure (see chap 4.9 the figure under the heading the nephron)


REVISION QUESTIONS
  1. Draw and label the digestive system
  2. draw and label the heart
  3. whats the difference between arteries and veins
  4. how is gaseous exchange part of the excretion process
  5. why can enzymes be used again and again - what is their role
  6. where would you find -what is the role of blood? what are the components of blood
    1. alveoli
    2. nephrons
    3. villi
    4. capillaries
    5. bronchioles
    6. osteoporosis

  7. what is the difference between
    1. oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood
    2. nutrients and plasma
    3. red blood cells and white blood cells


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Systems – Living Connections key concepts updated for new textbookstudent guide Name



2017 Year 8 Systems: Living connections Chapter 4

Key Concepts


  1. 1. Digestive system
  2. 2. Circulatory system
  3. 3. Respiratory system
  4. 4. Excretory system
  5. 5. Skeletal & muscular system
NAME:

Science Quest 8
TEXTBOOK
SCIENCE Quest 8 PRACTICALS / ACTIVITIES
SCIENCE Quest 8
HOMEWORK
OTHER ACTIVITIES/RESOURCES
1
4.2 Working Together
Investigation 4.1 Mapping your organs
Understanding & Inquiring Q’s 1-12 (4.2)
Words to Learn
Cells Organelles Tissues Organs Systems
2
4.10 Keeping in shape
Suggestions:
Inv. 4.11 Rubbery bones demo

Inv. 4.12 Chicken wing dissection
Understanding & Inquiring Q’s 1-6

Words to Learn
Skeleton bone cartilage minerals calcium phosphorous ossification brittle fracture stem cell osteoporosis ligaments muscle tendons joints sprains arthritis
3
4.5 Blood Highways &
4.6 Transport technology
Inv. 4.6 Viewing blood cells
Inv. 4.7 Dissect a Heart
Inv. 4.8 Check your heart
Understanding & Inquiring Q’s 1-19 (4.5)
Q’s 1-9 (4.6)
Research – Q 10 (4.6)




Words to Learn
Blood vessels arteries veins capillaries plasma haemoglobin anaemic deoxygenated oxygenated vena cava ventricles atria valves blood pressure
4
4.7 Respiratory system
4.8 Short of Breath
Inv. 4.10 Measuring vital capacity

If available – sheep’s pluck (Inv. 4.9)
Understanding & Inquiring Q’s 1-8 (4.7)
Q’s 1-4 (4.8)
Words to Learn
Breathing trachea epiglottis bronchioles alveoli diaphragm asthma anaphylaxis
5
4.3 Break it down &
4.4 Digestive endeavours
Inv. 4.3 Does temperature affect enzymes
Inv. 4.5 How well do you brush your teeth

Rat dissection

Skulls
Understanding & Inquiring Q’s 1-9 (4.3)

Q’s 1-8 (4.4)
Words to Learn
Digestion enamel pulp herbivore carnivore omnivore insectivore enzymes denatured substrate product amylase lipase protease bile emulsify
digestive terms villi
6
4.9 Excretory system
Youtube clips – nephron functioning
Understanding & Inquiring Q’s 1-8
If time permits - Research: Dialysis machines
Words to Learn
Excretion lungs kidneys urea urine ureter bladder Bowman’s capsule nephron glomerulus







Online test
Status
Open – Currently available to be taken online
Availability
Wednesday, 3/8/2017 until the end of Monday, 4/3/2017
Access Code unavailable
BodySystems
Version
6 (Published 3/20/2017 11:05 PM)
Access Links
Test Link
http://www.classroomclipboard.com/490625/Home/Test/3934DD21451B4CC1B394D00FDF225784
This link takes you directly to this online test and will be the same for all published changes.

.








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Key Concept
Vocabulary
Assessment


  1. 1. Identify the organs and overall function of a system of a multicellular organism
  2. 2. Describe the structure of each organ in a system and relate its function to the overall function of the system
  3. 3. Describe the structure of a human bone
  4. 4. Describe the relationship between bones, joints, ligaments and muscles
  5. 5. Identify the components that make up blood
  6. 6. Compare red blood cells and white blood cells
  7. 7. State the relationship between blood, heart, arteries, veins and capillaries
  8. 8. Use a flowchart to describe the relationship between the trachea, alveoli, lungs, capillaries, oxygen and carbon dioxide
  9. 9. Sequence the structures of the digestive system and state the function of each
10.Describe how the structure of the teeth, oesophagus and villi in the small intestine assist their function
11.Describe how the tongue, gall bladder, pancreas and liver are involved in the digestive process
12.Explain how wastes are removed from the human body
Skeleton
Bone
Cartilage
Minerals
Calcium
Phosphorous
Ossification
Osteoporosis
Ligaments
Muscle
Tendons
Joints
Sprains
Arthritis
Blood vessels
Arteries
Veins
Capillaries
Plasma
Haemoglobin
Anaemic
Deoxygenated
Oxygenated
Vena cava
Ventricles
Atria
Valves
Blood pressure
Lungs
Breathing
Trachea
Epiglottis
Bronchioles
Alveoli
Diaphragm
Asthma
Anaphylaxis
Digestion
Enamel
Pulp
Herbivore
Carnivore
Omnivore
Enzymes
Denatured
Substrate
Product
Amylase
Lipase
Protease
Bile
Emulsify
Villi
Excretion
Lungs
Kidneys
Urea
Urine
Ureter
Bladder
Bowman’s capsule Nephron
Glomerulus
  • Science Inquiry Skills – Does
Temperature Affect Enzymes?
  • Science as a Human Endeavour
Homework Tasks
  • Question Gallery Mini-Poster
  • End of Topic Test
Science Quest 8 –Main Concepts
Suggested Activities
Science as a Human Endeavour/Extension
Wk 2
4.2: Working Together?
  • Major Body Systems of the Body
  • Organs and Tissues
  • Systems Need to Work Together

4.10: Musculoskeletal System - Keeping in Shape
  • Bones
  • Joints
  • Muscles
  • Broken Bones
Investigate: 4.1 Mapping Your Organs (p93)
Create: Body Systems Body Cut Outs
E-Book Plus: Body Systems Mind Map (p94)

Investigate: Investigation 4.12 Chicken Wing Dissection (p144)



Investigate: Investigation 4.11 Rubbery Bones (p143)
Create: Disarticulated Skeleton
Create: Model of the Arm (p145)
E-Book Plus: Bones, Joints and Muscles (p145)
Creation of Question Gallery (p81)
Wk 3
4.5: Circulatory System – Blood Highways
  • What’s in Blood?
  • Connected Pathways
  • Have a Heart
Investigate: Investigation 4.7 Heart Dissection (p113)
E-Book Plus: Blood and Highways (p116)
E-Book Plus: Interactivity – Beat It! (p116)
Refer to the Homework Schedule



Wk 4
4.7: Respiratory System – Breathe In, Breathe Out
  • Cells Need Energy!
  • Respiratory System
Investigate: Investigation 4.9 Hands on Pluck (p126)
Investigate: Investigation 4.10 Measuring Your Vital Capacity (p127)
Think and Create: Model Lungs (p129)
E-Book Plus: Anatomy of Breathing (p129)
Questions 1 complete in your glossary
also ques 2
Refer to the Homework Schedule

extension ques 4 and 5
Wk 5
4.9: Excretory System – Taking Out the Trash
  • Excretory System
  • Kidneys
  • Liver
Investigate: Investigation 4.7 Heart Dissection (p113)
Create: Walk the Nephron (basic)
E-Book Plus: Removing Waste from the Blood (p139)

Questions - complete ques 1 in your glossary
also ques 2, 3 , 4
Refer to the Homework Schedule
Extension ques - 6 to 8
Wk 6
4.3: Digestive System – Break it Down
  • Mechanical and Chemical Digestion
  • Human Digestive System
  • Enzymes
Investigate: Investigation 4.3 Does Temperature Affect Enzymes? (p99)
Investigate: Rat Dissection (p100)
E-Book Plus: Digestive Jigsaw (p102)
E-Book Plus: Digestion Animation (p102)
E-Book Plus: Digestive System Drag and Drop (p102)

Questions - complete ques 8 in your glossary

Questions - complete ques 1, 2, 3 , 4, 5, 27
Refer to the Homework Schedule

Extension ques 6, 7, 11a, 21, 27
Wk 7
End of Topic Test

Review and Test
revision - see the "looking back section of your text book

revision sheet

online test
http://www.classroomclipboard.com/490625/Test/3934DD21451B4CC1B394D00FDF225784

the access code will be given to you on the test day












Movies from
http://kidshealth.org/

Movie: Heart & Circulatory System
Movie: Digestive System
Movie: Endocrine System
Movie: Immune System
Movie: Muscular System
Movie: Brain & Nervous System
Movie: Lungs & Respiratory System
Movie: Bones & Skeletal System
Movie: Urinary System


Class notes

Chicken Wing Dissection diagram

A good diagram will be completed in pencil and will have labels and a heading
you should be ale to label the following
tendon, muscle, bone, ligament

It is important to see that muscles are arranged in pairs. when one contracts the other relaxes. The result is when one contracts it will move the bone in one direction. When its mate contracts it will move the bone in the opposite direction.

What's in a bone

Bones are alive - they mend after a break. They contain collagen - that helps them flex and minerals (calcium, phosphorous that ossifies the bone) and makes them hard and brittle. We need bones to give us shape and provide support


Joints.

Bones are held together by strong flexible tissue called ligaments. A joint has slippery fluid called synovial fluid between the bones and cartilage that caps each end of the bone. The cartilage and the synovial fluid keeps the joints lubricated.
Some special joints are
a. hinge joints like in your elbow
b. ball and socket joints like in your hip
c. pivot joints like in your neck
d. and fixed joints that do not move - like in your skull.

Page 141 chapter 2.10 -draw examples of each joint

The Skeleton

Download the worksheet from edmodo and complete.
Learn the main bones of the human body
Have a game of Simon says

How do we move?

Muscles need skeletons to help us move.
At the end of each muscle is some slippery, silvery, very tough tissue that grows out of the muscle and joins onto a bone - the tendon (achilles tendon)
when a muscle contracts the tendons pull on the bone bringing the bones closer together.

Blood highways

Blood is composed of
  1. Red Blood Cells - that contain haemaglobin and carry oxygen molecules to the cells for respiration
  2. White blood cells - that fight infection by engulfing the foreign body
  3. Platelets - that can block little cuts
  4. Plasma - a yellow fluid mainly made of water and dissolved minerals and nutrients and hormones

Blood travels in special tubes
Blood is pumped by the heart. Blood flows away from the heart in arteries. Arteries have thick muscular walls (pulse). They can squeeze the blood at a regular pulse similar to your heart beat. Arteries become finer and finer as they travel through your body until they become capillaries - the finest of all tubes. The capillaries may only be 2 or 3 cells in diameter and at this size the oxygen and nutrients leave the blood and enter the cells. The waste that was in the cells now move into the capillaries. As the capillaries get bigger in diameter they become narrow veins. Veins carry blood back to the heart under low pressure (no pulse). Veins have special cups inside them called valves that stop the blood flowing backward (or pooling in your feet due to gravity)

My pulse rate (beats per minute)
relaxed
standing
walking
walking fast
jogging
running
after 2 min relaxing
after 4 min relaxing
after 6 min relaxing
after trying to slow your pulse

The heart beats faster with strenuous exercise. A really healthy heart returns to the resting stage quickly.


My pulse rate (beats per minute)
relaxed
walking
walking fast
jogging
running
after 2 min relaxing
after 4 min relaxing
after 6 min relaxing
after trying to slow your pulse

The heart beats faster with strenuous exercise. A really healthy heart returns to the resting stage quickly.

4.7 Sucked in & blown out &

Cells need energy. They get energy from burning glucose in oxygen inside the cell. The cell gets glucose from digestion but it gets the oxygen from the lungs. Remember the red blood cells carry this oxygen to cells.

This process of burning glucose in oxygen produces waste carbon dioxide and water. WE call this scientific process RESPIRATION or Cellular respiration.

The lungs are 2 large sacs containing millions of tiny sacs called alveoli. Each alveoli is surrounded by tiny capillaries. It is here that oxygen can diffuse from the alveoli into the capillary. Excess carbon dioxide and some water diffuse from the blood back into the alveoli. We breathe these wastes out when we exhale.

Air gets into the lungs when the diaphragm flattens out (contracts). This creates a negative pressure in the lungs and air rushes up your nose, down larynx, past the voice box, through the trachea (a ribbed cartilage surrounded tube) into the bronchioles and down ever finer tubes to the alveoli.

To get the air out we relax our diaphragm. This then arches up and pushes the air out of the lungs. Muscles between our ribs also contract to squeeze the lungs.

Copy the diagram of the alveolus and how the oxygen gets into the capillaries and how carbon dioxide gets out. page 124

Complete questions in the guide sheet.

Asthma is _
The bronchioles
Anaphylaxis is _

Breathing trachea epiglottis bronchioles alveoli diaphragm asthma anaphylaxis


Digestive system

4.3 Break it down &

Digestive systems

http://kidshealth.org/misc/movie/bodybasics/digestive_system.html

Use this link above to learn the parts of the digestive system and what their function is.

How digestion works

Food is necessary to keep our bodies supplied with energy. It is also required so our bodies can replace old cells and grow.

For food to get into our blood stream it first must be broken down
1. mechanically by our teeth
2. Chemically by the enzymes (see p 98) and acids in our stomach.

The food goes from being a lump to individual molecules that can pass from our small intestine through the villi into the blood stream.

Enzymes

Make a simplified diagram of the enzyme diagram on page 98 to explain how enzymes work.

Enzymes are chemicals that assist the chemical digestion. An enzyme acts like a pair of ssissors cutting the food molecules into little bits.

Each food has its own special enzyme to break it down and these enzymes are released from glands through out the digestive system.


Examples of enzymes

Amylases break down Complex Carbohydrates (like starch) into simpler carbohydrates
Proteases breakdown Proteins (like meat) into simpler proteins
Liapses breakdown Fats and oils (like butter) into lipids

Here are some specific examples of enzymes
  • Lactase breaks down lactose

  • Maltase breaks down maltose

  • protease breaks down proteins

Does Temperature affect enzyme function

Aim to investigate the effect of temperature on enzyme function
Hypothesis -----you fill in
Method
1. 3 beakers of 100mLs of water
2. beaker 1 cold tap water, beaker 2, water from the hot water tap about 40 deg C , beaker 3 very hot water (about 80 - 90 degrees C) Safety note
3. to beaker 1 add 1 testube with 20mLs of milk and one testube with 20 mLs of milk and tiny teaspoon of rennin
4. observe for and record observation in table, each minute for 5 minutes
5 repeat steps 3 and 4 for beaker 2 and beaker 3

Results
you draw up the tables

Discussion
experimental errors include
My independent variable was
My dependent variable was

Conclusion
My hypothesis was / was not supported by the results.
I found that..



The Villi



These look like thousands of fingers that wave inside our small intestine. They have the effect of increasing the surface area of the small intestine making it have more places for the nutrients to diffuse into the blood system.




Bile

This is like a detergent that can emulsify fat (this means turn fat into very tiny droplets)
This is how the fat gets small enough to get into your blood stream.

The Kidney

The role of the kidney is to filter the blood and extract the waste and excess water.
The waste is called urea.

The excess water and urea are stored in the bladder and called urine


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Make sure you know the meanings of these words
Digestion enamel pulp herbivore carnivore omnivore insectivore enzymes denatured substrate product amylase lipase protease bile emulsify
digestive terms - vili

2016 Year 8 Systems: Living connections Chapter 4__

Key Concepts


  1. 1. Digestive system
  2. 2. Circulatory system
  3. 3. Respiratory system
  4. 4. Excretory system
  5. 5. Skeletal & muscular system
NAME:

Science Quest 8
TEXTBOOK
SCIENCE Quest 8 PRACTICALS / ACTIVITIES
SCIENCE Quest 8
HOMEWORK
OTHER ACTIVITIES/RESOURCES
1
4.2 Working Together
Investigation 4.1 Mapping your organs
Understanding & Inquiring Q’s 1-12 (4.2)
Words to Learn
Cells Organelles Tissues Organs Systems
2
4.3 Break it down &
4.4 Digestive endeavours
Inv. 4.3 Does temperature affect enzymes
Inv. 4.5 How well do you brush your teeth

Rat dissection

Skulls
Understanding & Inquiring Q’s 1-9 (4.3)

Q’s 1-8 (4.4)
Words to Learn
Digestion enamel pulp herbivore carnivore omnivore insectivore enzymes denatured substrate product amylase lipase protease bile emulsify
digestive terms villi
3
4.5 Blood Highways &
4.6 Transport technology
Inv. 4.6 Viewing blood cells
Inv. 4.7 Dissect a Heart
Inv. 4.8 Check your heart
Understanding & Inquiring Q’s 1-19 (4.5)
Q’s 1-9 (4.6)
Research – Q 10 (4.6)
Words to Learn
Blood vessels arteries veins capillaries plasma haemoglobin anaemic deoxygenated oxygenated vena cava ventricles atria valves blood pressure



4
4.7 Respiratory system
4.8 Short of Breath
Inv. 4.10 Measuring vital capacity

If available – sheep’s pluck (Inv. 4.9)
Understanding & Inquiring Q’s 1-8 (4.7)
Q’s 1-4 (4.8)
Words to Learn
Breathing trachea epiglottis bronchioles alveoli diaphragm asthma anaphylaxis
5
4.9 Excretory system
Youtube clips – nephron functioning
Understanding & Inquiring Q’s 1-8
If time permits - Research: Dialysis machines
Words to Learn
Excretion lungs kidneys urea urine ureter bladder Bowman’s capsule nephron glomerulus
6
4.10 Keeping in shape
Suggestions:
Inv. 4.11 Rubbery bones

Inv. 4.12 Chicken wing dissection
Understanding & Inquiring Q’s 1-6
Words to Learn
Skeleton bone cartilage minerals calcium phosphorous ossification brittle fracture stem cell osteoporosis ligaments muscle tendons joints sprains arthritis